Economy Profile of Ireland

Ease of Doing Business in Ireland

Ease-of-Doing-Business-in-Ireland

Rankings on Doing Business topics – Ireland

Rankings on Doing Business topics - Ireland

Topic Scores

Topic Scores - Ireland

Starting a Business

This topic measures the number of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirement for a small- to medium-sized limited liability company to start up and formally operate in each economy’s largest business city.

To make the data comparable across 190 economies, Doing Business uses a standardized business that is 100% domestically owned, has start-up capital equivalent to 10 times the income per capita, engages in general industrial or commercial activities and employs between 10 and 50 people one month after the commencement of operations, all of whom are domestic nationals. Starting a Business considers two types of local limited liability companies that are identical in all aspects, except that one company is owned by 5 married women and the other by 5 married men. The ranking of economies on the ease of starting a business is determined by sorting their scores for starting a business. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

Procedures to legally start and formally operate a company (number)

  • Preregistration (for example, name verification or reservation, notarization)

  • Registration in the economy’s largest business city

  • Postregistration (for example, social security registration, company seal)

  • Obtaining approval from spouse to start a business or to leave the home to register the company

  • Obtaining any gender specific document for company registration and operation or national identification card

Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days)

  • Does not include time spent gathering information

  • Each procedure starts on a separate day (2 procedures cannot start on the same day)

  • Procedures fully completed online are recorded as ½ day

  • Procedure is considered completed once final document is received

  • No prior contact with officials

Cost required to complete each procedure (% of income per capita)

  • Official costs only, no bribes

  • No professional fees unless services required by law or commonly used in practice

Paid-in minimum capital (% of income per capita)

  • Funds deposited in a bank or with third party before registration or up to 3 months after incorporation
  • To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the business and the procedures are used. It is assumed that any required information is readily available and that the entrepreneur will pay no bribes.

    The business:

    -Is a limited liability company (or its legal equivalent). If there is more than one type of limited liability company in the economy, the limited liability form most common among domestic firms is chosen. Information on the most common form is obtained from incorporation lawyers or the statistical office.

    -Operates in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

    -Performs general industrial or commercial activities such as the production or sale to the public of goods or services. The business does not perform foreign trade activities and does not handle products subject to a special tax regime, for example, liquor or tobacco. It is not using heavily polluting production processes.

    -Does not qualify for investment incentives or any special benefits.

    -Is 100% domestically owned.

    -Has five business owners, none of whom is a legal entity. One business owner holds 30% of the company shares, two owners have 20% of shares each, and two owners have 15% of shares each.

    -Is managed by one local director.

    -Has between 10 and 50 employees one month after the commencement of operations, all of them domestic nationals.

    -Has start-up capital of 10 times income per capita.

    -Has an estimated turnover of at least 100 times income per capita.

    -Leases the commercial plant or offices and is not a proprietor of real estate.

    -Has an annual lease for the office space equivalent to one income per capita.

    -Is in an office space of approximately 929 square meters (10,000 square feet).

    -Has a company deed that is 10 pages long.

    The owners:

    -Have reached the legal age of majority and are capable of making decisions as an adult. If there is no legal age of majority, they are assumed to be 30 years old.

    -Are in good health and have no criminal record.

    -Are married, the marriage is monogamous and registered with the authorities.

    -Where the answer differs according to the legal system applicable to the woman or man in question (as may be the case in economies where there is legal plurality), the answer used will be the one that applies to the majority of the population.

    Starting a Business – Ireland

    Starting a Business - Ireland

    Figure – Starting a Business in Ireland – Score

    Figure – Starting a Business in Ireland – Score

    Figure – Starting a Business in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    DB 2020 Starting a Business Score

    Starting a Business in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of starting a business is determined by sorting their scores for starting a business. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

    Figure – Starting a Business in Ireland – Procedure, Time and Cost

    Starting a Business in Ireland – Procedure, Time and Cost

    * This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

    Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website (http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

    Details – Starting a Business in Ireland – Procedure, Time and Cost

    1 File necessary materials with the Companies Registration Office (CRO)

    Agency : Companies Registration Office

    A founder may register a company at the Companies Registration Office (CRO) by three methods:

    1. The CORE registration system, in which the papers for incorporation are lodged in print and electronic form. Under this scheme, the constitution must be submitted in CRO• preapproved format. After the documents are filed, the CORE incorporates the company within 5 working days (typically within 3 working days).
    2. A “Fe Phrainn” system, in which (as detailed in the first method) the incorporation documents are submitted to the CRO in a preapproved format. Under this method, however, documents are submitted in print form only, and the CRO incorporates the company within 10 working days.
    3. An alternate system in which the incorporation documents are submitted to the CRO in print form, but the constitution are not in a preapproved format. In this instance, the CRO incorporates

    EUR 50 for with pre- approved memorandum and articles, EUR 100 for

    standard registration

    To access the first two systems, to the company founder must apply to the CRO for an access number and have the constitution approved in advance. Usually only professional agencies use the expedited systems.

    Necessary documents for limited companies:

    • Constitution..

    • List of directors, secretary, and subscribers.

    • Statement of nominal (authorized) and issued share capital and consideration paid.

    • Notice of registered office.

    • Statement of the main business activities and the address where they will be carried out, contained in a statutory notice sent to the CRO.

    Forms can be downloaded from the CRO Web site. For all methods, a CRO Form A1 must be submitted with details of the company name, the first election of directors and secretary, and the subscribers to the constitution; the authorized and issued share capital; and the registered office and the details of the location in the state where the central administration and the main company activities are proposed to be undertaken. The constitution, signed by the subscriber shareholders, will also be submitted to the CRO.

    Since September, 2009, it is possible to reserve the proposed company name in advance of submitting the incorporation papers. The advantage of this is that it avoids the rejection of the proposed name by the Companies Registration Office either because it has already been taken or because it is inappropriate for some other reason (such as public policy). There is a fee charged of EUR 25 but this fee is then taken off the incorporation fee meaning that there is in effect no cost.

    A registration fee of EUR 100 is charged for each model constitution registered with the Office. However, the use of the model company incorporation documents, using the CRO disk system, will result in a reduced incorporation fee of EUR 50. The company registration fee for procedures other than the new ones is EUR 100.

    2 Obtain a company seal

    Agency : Sealmaker

    In addition to getting a company seal, the company must keep the statutory registers for the directors and shareholders.

    1 day EUR 20.28

    3 Register for corporation tax, social insurance (PAYE/PRSI), and VAT with the Revenue Commissioners

    Agency : Revenue Commissioners

    To register for corporation for VAT taxes and for social insurance (PAYE/PRSI) with the Revenue Commissioners, the company must file Form TR2. The Tax Identification Number is needed only when the company must pay year-end taxes. Upon entering form data into the Commissioners database, the company is immediately registered for PAYE/PRSI.

    Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

    1 week no charge

    Dealing with Construction Permits

    This topic tracks the procedures, time and cost to build a warehouse—including obtaining necessary the licenses and permits, submitting all required notifications, requesting and receiving all necessary inspections and obtaining utility connections. In addition, the Dealing with Construction Permits indicator measures the building quality control index, evaluating the quality of building regulations, the strength of quality control and safety mechanisms, liability and insurance regimes, and professional certification requirements. The most recent round of data collection was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information

    What the indicators measure

    Procedures to legally build a warehouse (number)

    • Submitting all relevant documents and obtaining all necessary clearances, licenses, permits and certificates

    • Submitting all required notifications and receiving all necessary inspections

    • Obtaining utility connections for water and sewerage

    • Registering and selling the warehouse after its completion

    Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days)

    • Does not include time spent gathering information

    • Each procedure starts on a separate day—though procedures that can be fully completed online are an exception to this rule

    • Procedure is considered completed once final document is received

    • No prior contact with officials

    Cost required to complete each procedure (% of income per capita)

    • Official costs only, no bribes

    Building quality control index (0-15)

    • Quality of building regulations (0-2)

    • Quality control before construction (0-1)

    • Quality control during construction (0-3)

    • Quality control after construction (0-3)

    • Liability and insurance regimes (0-2)

    • Professional certifications (0-4)

    To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the construction company, the warehouse project and the utility connections are used.

    The construction company (BuildCo):

    • Is a limited liability company (or its legal equivalent) and operates in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

    • Is 100% domestically and privately owned; has five owners, none of whom is a legal entity. Has a licensed architect and a licensed engineer, both registered with the local association of architects or engineers. BuildCo is not assumed to have any other employees who are technical or licensed experts, such as geological or topographical experts.

    • Owns the land on which the warehouse will be built and will sell the warehouse upon its completion.

    The warehouse:

    • Will be used for general storage activities, such as storage of books or stationery.

    • Will have two stories, both above ground, with a total constructed area of approximately 1,300.6 square meters (14,000 square feet). Each floor will be 3 meters (9 feet, 10 inches) high and will be located on a land plot of approximately 929 square meters (10,000 square feet) that is 100% owned by BuildCo, and the warehouse is valued at 50 times income per capita.

    • Will have complete architectural and technical plans prepared by a licensed architect. If preparation of the plans requires such steps as obtaining further documentation or getting prior approvals from external agencies, these are counted as procedures.

    • Will take 30 weeks to construct (excluding all delays due to administrative and regulatory requirements).

    The water and sewerage connections:

    • Will be 150 meters (492 feet) from the existing water source and sewer tap. If there is no water delivery infrastructure in the economy, a borehole will be dug. If there is no sewerage infrastructure, a septic tank in the smallest size available will be installed or built.

    • Will have an average water use of 662 liters (175 gallons) a day and an average wastewater flow of 568 liters (150 gallons) a day. Will have a peak water use of 1,325 liters (350 gallons) a day and a peak wastewater flow of 1,136 liters (300 gallons) a day.

    • Will have a constant level of water demand and wastewater flow throughout the year; will be 1 inch in diameter for the water connection and 4 inches in diameter for the sewerage connection.

    Dealing with Construction Permits – Ireland

    Dealing with Construction Permits - Ireland

    Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    DB 2020 Dealing with Construction Permits Score

    Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of dealing with construction permits is determined by sorting their scores for dealing with construction permits. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

    Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Ireland – Procedure, Time and Cost

    Dealing with Construction Permits in Ireland – Procedure, Time and Cost

    * This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

    Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website (http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

    Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Ireland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

    Dealing with Construction Permits in Ireland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

    Details – Dealing with Construction Permits in Ireland – Procedure, Time and Cost

    No. Procedures Time to Complete Associated Costs

    1 Publish notice of construction in approved newspaper

    Agency : Newspaper

    According to Article 17(1)(a) of the Planning and Development Regulations 2001-2011, the intention to apply for planning permission must be published in an authorized newspaper for 14 days, including the site notice, information on the owner, as well as a description of what the intended development will be used for. Once the site notice is published, the applicant can apply for planning permission the next day. A copy of this newspaper publication must be submitted with all the documents when requesting the planning permission. The applicant must apply within 14 days for planning permission from the moment the notice is published; otherwise they must re- publish the intention to apply. The cost depends on the size of the advertisement.

    2 Obtain an ordinance survey map

    Agency : Ordinance Survey Ireland

    3 Hold a pre-planning meeting with the Planning Department

    Agency : Planning Department, Dun Laoghaire Rathdown County Council

    Pre-planning consultations are mandatory for non-residential developments of more than 1,000 square meters (which includes the case study warehouse) under section 43 of the Planning and Development (Amendment) Act 2018. The meeting should be held within 4 weeks of the date of the receipt by the county council but that time limit may be extended depending on the council’s resources and workload. The applicant would submit:

    21 days

    no charge

    • Site location map;

    • Description of proposed development;

    • Details on car parking, if applicable; and

    • Full set of drawings if the applicant already has them.

    4 Request and obtain planning permission

    Agency : Planning Department – Dun Laoghaire Rathdown County Council

    It may be necessary to submit an environmental impact study to accompany the planning application where the local planning authority considers that the development is likely to have a significant effect on the environment, based on the characteristics of the development, its location or the characteristics of the environmental impacts from the development. However, for the case study warehouse, it would not require an environmental impact study or assessment.

    If the local planning authority considers that the development is likely to have a significant effect on a site protected under the Habitats or Birds Directives (or sites proposed for protection under the Habitats or Birds Directives), it may also be necessary to submit an 'appropriate assessment' of the predicted impacts of the proposed development on the relevant protected site(s). However, this would likely not apply to the case study warehouse.

    The time specified by law (55 days) represents the minimum statutory time period within which the planning authority may, at first instance, make a decision on the planning application: reject the application, approve the application or request further information from the applicant. Within these 8 weeks, the public has 5 weeks to submit any comments they may have on the development. If the planning authority seeks further information, the applicant would have an additional 6 months to respond. The planning authority then has 4 weeks to make a decision following receipt of further information. Once the planning decision is made, the applicant has 4 weeks to appeal.

    However, in practice it takes around 90 days, on the basis that a request for further information is made by the planning authority. An appeal against the decision made by the local planning authority may be made to the planning appeals board (an board pleanála) within 4 weeks of the date of the decision of the local planning authority. The appeal process, which may include an oral hearing, may delay the commencement of construction between 4-8 months or even more.

    According to Development Contribution Scheme 2016 – 2020 (as amended) (under Section 48, Planning & Development Act, 2000 as amended), BuildCo is required to pay a general contribution fee in respect of public infrastructure and facilities benefiting development in the area of the local planning authority.

    90 days EUR 102,357

    5 Request and obtain fire safety and disability access certificates

    Agency : Planning Department, Dun Laoghaire Rathdown County Council

    The fire safety certificate and the disability access certificate can be requested together at the local City Council according to the Building Control Regulation 1997, revised December 2018. Both applications are then forwarded to the relevant departments.

    Fire safety certificate: It is required before a building may be lawfully occupied. In order to ensure that the design and construction is in accordance with the relevant statutory fire safety requirements, an application for the fire safety certificate should be made prior to construction or, at a minimum, 90 days prior to completion, to prevent any delay in the occupation of the building. The application must be accompanied by a fire safety report, drawings and specifications and the relevant fee. A revised fire safety certificate may be required where planning permission is granted for a revised design or where a significant revision is made to the design for which a fire safety certificate has been granted.

    It is important that the full application fee accompany the application for a fire safety certificate, as the application may otherwise be deemed invalid and returned by the local authority. Once the application is received, the Fire Safety Unit will review the application for completion and check that the fees have been paid. The application will then be stamped and validated, and an acknowledgment of receipt will be sent to the applicant. The fire safety report and drawings will then be reviewed to ensure they comply with Part B (fire safety) requirements in the legislation.

    Builders have the option to commence development without waiting until a fire safety certificate is issued, according to the 7-day notice I. 351 of 2009 Building Control (Amendment) Regulations 2009.

    Once a firm submits a valid application for a fire safety certificate, it may submit a 7-day notice to the Fire Safety Unit and sign a statutory declaration that Part B (fire safety) requirements will be complied with. Once this is carried out and upon expiration of the 7-day period, the developer can commence development without waiting for the fire safety certificate to be issued.

    However, the 7-day notice can only be submitted where a valid application for a fire safety certificate is made. A fire safety certificate will still have to be issued for the development.

    Disability access certificate: Since January 2010, all buildings have to obtain a disability access certificate. An architect or other professional prepares the access certificate application to confirm that the design of the building meets the recommendations of Part M of the Building Control Regulations. The application must be accompanied by a site or layout plan; and the following information such as identifying and describing the works or building to which the application relates, in addition the nature and extent of the proposed use; and the relevant fee. If both applications for the disability access and fire safety certificates are submitted together, then a fee of EUR 500 is paid for the disability access certificate instead of EUR 800.

    The local planning authority reviews the application and proceeds to issue the certificate if it is in order. To avoid potentially expensive remedial work, it would be considered good practice to apply for the certificate at the same time as the fire safety certificate, thereby ensuring that the certificate and any conditions pertaining to it are known prior to the commencement of works. A building may not be operated or occupied unless such a certificate has been granted.

    The fire safety certificate takes 3 months to obtain, and the disability certificate takes around 2 months.

    90 days EUR 4,272

    6 Submit a commencement notice

    Agency : Planning Department – Dun Laoghaire Rathdown County Council

    0.5 days

    EUR 30

    According to the Building Control (Amendment) Regulations 2014, a commencement notice or

    seven-day notice must be submitted must be submitted through the online system of Building

    Control Management System (BCMS). This must be submitted seven days prior to construction

    on-site. In addition, the fire safety certificate must be granted before submitting the

    commencement notice.

    Any commencement notice, which come within the scope of S.I. 9 of 2014 must fill out an online

    assessment of the proposed approach to compliance with the building regulations. It must be

    signed and submitted in person, and be accompanied by the following documents:

    – Undertaking by assigned certifier;

    – Notice of assignment of builder;

    – Undertaking by builder;

    – General arrangement drawings for building control purposes – plans, sections and elevations;

    – A schedule of design documents as are currently prepared or to be prepared;

    – An online assessment via the Building Control Management System of the proposed approach to

    compliance with the requirements of the Building Regulations 1997 to 2014;

    – Certificate of compliance (design) signed by the builder and the assigned certifier undertaking to

    carry-out their roles in accordance with the requirements of the building regulations;

    – Notice of assignment in respect of the builder who will carry out the works and of the assigned

    certifier who will inspect and certify the works;

    – Final planning permission;

    – A fire safety certificate; and

    – A disability access certificate/application form.

    In addition:

    – The designer and the assigned certifier must be a chartered engineer, or registered architect or

    registered surveyor;

    – A competent builder must execute the work;

    – The drawings must show details of how the building will comply with the building regulations:

    drawings submitted for planning permission purposes are not typically building control compliance

    drawings;

    – Other documents which may be submitted to demonstrate compliance with building regulations

    include a specification document for the works, DEAP calculations, Part L compliance document;

    and

    – Where notices and documentation are submitted in written format, the building control authority

    will arrange for their scanning and uploading for which an administrative charge will apply and

    statutory deadlines relating to such notices may be delayed by up to seven days.

    It must be accompanied by a fee of EUR 30 per building, up to a maximum of EUR 3,800.

    7 Request water and sewage connection

    Agency : Irish Water

    1 day

    EUR 490

    As of January 2014, Irish Water (a new national water utility) has assumed responsibility for the

    provision of water services, in partnership with each local authority. BuildCo applies to Irish Water

    (IW) by downloading the online connection application form and submitting it by email or post,

    along with maps, building plans, the applicant's details, information on water loading and demand

    and a water conservation plan.

    8 Receive inspection for feasibility of the connections and obtain connection offer

    Agency : Irish Water

    7 days

    no charge

    Irish Water (IW) will assess the application to confirm that the application is still feasible. The

    information is then forwarded by IW to the local planning authority for review and they have 7 days

    to send their comments to IW. Once the local authority indicates that are no issues with the

    application, IW reviews the application and may request additional information from BuildCo. In

    addition IW will engage with the developer to vet the design of the local infrastructure if necessary.

    For example, IW would check the size of the pipe that BuildCo is connecting to. Once everything

    has been reviewed, IW will issue an offer to connect, detailing costs and the works required to

    enable the connection at which stage the connection fees must be paid.

    9 Obtain water and sewage connection

    Agency : Irish Water

    21 days

    no charge

    Once the connection fees are paid, BuildCo can proceed with laying the cables and pipes on the

    private land. A contractor from Irish Water will then complete the connection works on the public

    land, including any excavation under public roads, and will install the water meter.

    10 Submit the Certificate of Compliance on Completion and obtain approval

    Agency : Planning Department, Dun Laoghaire Rathdown County Council

    A certificate of compliance and completion needs to be submitted to local City Council upon completion, which can be done through the Building Control Management System (BCMS) since 2018. This must include a statutory form, plans, calculations, specifications and particulars that are necessary to outline how the completed building:

    21 days

    no charge

    • differs from the plans, calculations, specifications and particulars submitted for the planning permission; and

    • complies with building regulations.

    The Planning Department’s role at the completion stage is primarily an administrative function to validate the paperwork uploaded to the BCMS by the assigned certifier. The validation/review process ensures that the certificate was properly completed and signed by the appropriate person, and that the final inspection plan is completed and matches the original plan uploaded on the BCMS’s system at the commencement stage by the assigned certifier (internal to the company).

    The Planning Department checks that there are no unresolved matters in relation to requests under Section 11 of the Building Control Act or Enforcement Notices or conditions attached to the fire safety certificate and the disability access certificate. There is no inspection undertaken by the Planning Department as part of the validation/review of the certificate of compliance upon completion.

    Upon receipt, the building control authority will have 21 days to determine the validity of the certificate of compliance. When the certificate of compliance has been accepted, the authority will register the certificate in the registry and notify the applicant of its acceptance.

    The Planning Department would not require the owner to register the warehouse in the Land Registry upon completion.

    Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

    Details – Dealing with Construction Permits in Ireland – Measure of Quality

    Dealing with Construction Permits in Ireland – Measure of Qualit

    Getting Electricity

    This topic measures the procedures, time and cost required for a business to obtain a permanent electricity connection for a newly constructed warehouse. Additionally, the reliability of supply and transparency of tariffs index measures reliability of supply, transparency of tariffs and the price of electricity. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

    What the indicators measure

    Procedures to obtain an electricity connection (number)

    • Submitting all relevant documents and obtaining all necessary clearances and permits

    • Completing all required notifications and receiving all necessary inspections

    • Obtaining external installation works and possibly purchasing material for these works

    • Concluding any necessary supply contract and obtaining final supply

    Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days)

    • Is at least 1 calendar day

    • Each procedure starts on a separate day

    • Does not include time spent gathering information

    • Reflects the time spent in practice, with little follow-up and no prior contact with officials

      Cost required to complete each procedure (% of income per capita)

    • Official costs only, no bribes

    • Value added tax excluded

      The reliability of supply and transparency of tariffs index (0-8)

    • Duration and frequency of power outages (0–3)

    • Tools to monitor power outages (0–1)

    • Tools to restore power supply (0–1)

    • Regulatory monitoring of utilities’ performance (0–1)

    • Financial deterrents limiting outages (0–1)

    • Transparency and accessibility of tariffs (0–1)

      To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the warehouse, the electricity connection and the monthly consumption are used.

      The warehouse:

      • Is owned by a local entrepreneur and is used for storage of goods.

      • Is located in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

      • Is located in an area where similar warehouses are typically located and is in an area with no physical constraints. For example, the property is not near a railway.

      • Is a new construction and is being connected to electricity for the first time.

      • Has two stories with a total surface area of approximately 1,300.6 square meters (14,000 square feet). The plot of land on which it is built is 929 square meters (10,000 square feet).

        The electricity connection:

      • Is a permanent one with a three-phase, four-wire Y connection with a subscribed capacity of 140- kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) with a power factor of 1, when 1 kVA = 1 kilowatt (kW).

      • Has a length of 150 meters. The connection is to either the low- or medium-voltage distribution network and is either overhead or underground, whichever is more common in the area where the warehouse is located and requires works that involve the crossing of a 10-meter road (such as by excavation or overhead lines) but are all carried out on public land. There is no crossing of other owners’ private property because the warehouse has access to a road.

      • Does not require work to install the internal wiring of the warehouse. This has already been completed up to and including the customer’s service panel or switchboard and the meter base.

        The monthly consumption:

      • It is assumed that the warehouse operates 30 days a month from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (8 hours a day), with equipment utilized at 80% of capacity on average and that there are no electricity cuts (assumed for simplicity reasons) and the monthly energy consumption is 26,880 kilowatt-hours (kWh); hourly consumption is 112 kWh.

      • If multiple electricity suppliers exist, the warehouse is served by the cheapest supplier.

      • Tariffs effective in January of the current year are used for calculation of the price of electricity for the warehouse. Although January has 31 days, for calculation purposes only 30 days are used.

      Price of electricity (cents per kilowatt-hour)*

    • Price based on monthly bill for commercial warehouse in case study

    *Note: Doing Business measures the price of electricity, but it is not included in the ease of doing business score nor in the ranking on the ease of getting electricity.

    image

    Standardized Connection

    Name of utility

    Electricity Supply Board (ESB)

    Getting Electricity – Ireland

    image

    City Covered

    Dublin

    Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 19.0

    image

    Indicator

    Ireland

    OECD high income

    Best Regulatory Performance

    Procedures (number)

    5

    4.4

    3 (28 Economies)

    image

    Cost (% of income per capita)

    57.1

    61.0

    0.0 (3 Economies)

    Time (days) 85 74.8 18 (3 Economies)

    image

    Figure – Getting Electricity in Ireland – Score

    Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 8 7.4 8 (26 Economies)

    image

    image

    66.7

    image

    99.3

    image

    100.0

    Procedures

    image

    70.9

    Time

    Cost

    Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index

    Figure – Getting Electricity in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    DB 2020 Getting Electricity Score

    image

    0 100

    98.8: Germany (Rank: 5)

    96.9: United Kingdom (Rank: 8)

    92.0: France (Rank: 17)

    85.9: Regional Average (OECD high income)

    84.2: Ireland (Rank: 47)

    63.8: Canada (Rank: 124)

    Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of getting electricity is determined by sorting their scores for getting electricity. These scores are the simple average of the scores for all the component indicators except the price of electricity.

    Figure – Getting Electricity in Ireland – Procedure, Time and Cost

    image

    image

    Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita)

    image

    70

    80

    Cost (% of income per capita)

    60

    70

    Time (days)

    60 50

    50 40

    40

    30

    30

    20

    20

    10 10

    0 0

    1 2 3 * 4 5

    Procedures (number)

    * This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

    Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website (http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology). For details on the procedures

    reflected here, see the summary below.

    Figure – Getting Electricity in Ireland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

    image

    8

    8

    8

    8

    7.4

    6

    9

    8

    Index score

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    Ireland Canada France Germany United

    Kingdom

    OECD

    high income

    Details – Getting Electricity in Ireland – Procedure, Time and Cost

    image

    1

    Submit application to Electricity Supply Board (ESB) Networks

    Agency : Electricity Supply Board (ESB) Networks Ltd.

    The client needs to first obtain an ordnance survey map (scale 1:2500-1:10560) that shows the location of their new premises, and a detailed site plan (scale 1:100-1:500) showing the new premises. Photocopies are acceptable.

    14 calendar days

    EUR 0

    The customer completes the Electricity Supply Board (ESBN) Networks application form (NC3) available on utility's website and submits it with load details and an ordnance survey map to the

    central office for application management at ESB Networks Service Bureau located in Cork city.

    No.

    Procedures

    Time to Complete

    Associated Costs

    2 Receive external inspection by ESB Networks and await estimate

    Agency : Electricity Supply Board (ESB) Networks Ltd.

    After the completed application has been received, the client’s business and site details will be set up on ESB Network’s system, then inspection takes place. The client then receives an acknowledgement with a reference number along with a quotation and a connection agreement. This agreement includes:

    • The meter point reference number (MPRN) for the client’s new premises. This is a unique reference number that identifies the client’s connection point to the electricity network; and

      image

      3

      Sign connection agreement and await completion of external works by ESB Networks

      Agency : Electricity Supply Board (ESB) Networks Ltd.

      The customer signs the connection agreement and returns it with the payment to ESB Networks Services Bureau. Check, postal order, and bank drafts, but no cash, are acceptable.

      60 calendar days

      EUR 29,698

      Once these have been received, ESB Networks will apply for a Road Opening License at the Roadworks Control Unit at the Dublin City Council. For excavation distances of less than 100 meters the license can be obtained in few days. For more than 100 meters however, the process will take longer because ESB Networks will then need to go through a road risk control. More information on this can be found at http://www.dublincity.ie/main-menu-services-roads-and-traffic- permits-and-licences/road-opening-licence.

      The Electricity Supply Board (ESB) Networks can start construction work on the electricity infrastructure required for the premises. The costumer will need to provide a civil plinth for mounting of the electrical transformer and any ducting required on-site. Once the external work is completed by ESB Networks, the meter is also installed.

    • The maximum import capacity (MIC) of the new premises. The MIC equates to the contracted electricity capacity for the premises based on information provided to ESB Networks.

      4 calendar days EUR 0

      image

      4 Submit customer's electrician's completion certificate

      Agency : Safe Electric

      While the customer is awaiting their connection agreement, the applicant’s registered electrical contractor (REC) must submit a Safe Electric completion certificate for the electrical installation per statutory requirements quoting the client’s meter point reference number (MPRN); address; and the clients name or business name. The certificate (No.2 over 50 kVA) is obtained from Safe Electric. If all information is in compliance with the Electricity Regulation Act 1999, then Safe Electric notifies ESB Networks and electricity supply can be turned on.

      In fact, every time an electrical contractor completes a new electrical installation, extension, or modification to an existing installation, s/he is obliged to test and certify that the installation complies with current standards. These standards are set by National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI).

      The electrical contractor is normally member of the Register of Electrical Contractors of Ireland (RECI), which is the organization designated by the Commission for Regulation of Utilities (CRU) from 2016-2022 to act as Safety Supervisory Body (SSB) and carry out the safety functions specified in legislation. Among the situations where completion certificate is required are:

    • Building any new house or premises;

    • Building an extension to an existing house or premises;

    • Altering the internal electrical wiring in any existing house or premises;

    • Reconnecting a house or premises (if vacant for more than 6 months); and

    • Connecting electric fences and other installations.

    1. calendar day EUR 86.78

      image

      image

      image

      5

      Sign supply contract with an electricity supplier and obtain meter installation and final connection from ESB Networks

      Agency : Supply company and Electricity Supply Board (ESB) Networks Ltd.

      If the customer’s maximum import capacity (MIC) is less than 30 kVA, they can contact the supplier of their choice or they may contact ESB Networks to request that their connection be made live. If the customer’s maximum import capacity is greater than or equal to 30kVA, the client must register with an electricity supplier of their choice. A list of suppliers is available at https://www.cru.ie/.

      7 calendar days

      EUR 0

      The client will need the following information when contacting a supplier:

      • Meter Point Reference Number;

      • The address of the new premises; and

      • Name and contact details.

      Once the supply contract has been signed, the supplier will pass on the information to ESB Networks, which will then proceed to finalize the connection without further involvement with the customer.

      Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

      Details – Getting Electricity in Ireland – Measure of Quality

      image

      Answer

      Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 8

      System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 0.8

      Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 3

      What is the minimum outage time (in minutes) that the utility considers for the calculation of SAIDI/SAIFI 3.0

      System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 0.6

      Does the distribution utility use automated tools to monitor outages? Yes

      Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1

      Does the distribution utility use automated tools to restore service? Yes

      Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1

      Does a regulator—that is, an entity separate from the utility—monitor the utility’s performance on reliability of supply? Yes

      Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1

      Does the utility either pay compensation to customers or face fines by the regulator (or both) if outages exceed a certain cap? Yes

      Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 1

      Are effective tariffs available online? Yes

      Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 1

      Link to the website, if available online https://switcher.ie/gas-

      image

      Are customers notified of a change in tariff ahead of the billing cycle? Yes

      electricity/comparison/

      Note:

      If the duration and frequency of outages is 100 or less, the economy is eligible to score on the Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index. If the duration and frequency of outages is not available, or is over 100, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

      If the minimum outage time considered for SAIDI/SAIFI is over 5 minutes, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

      image

      Registering Property

      This topic examines the steps, time and cost involved in registering property, assuming a standardized case of an entrepreneur who wants to purchase land and a building that is already registered and free of title dispute. In addition, the topic also measures the quality of the land administration system in each economy. The quality of land administration index has five dimensions: reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution, and equal access to property rights. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

      image

      What the indicators measure

      Case study assumptions

      Procedures to legally transfer title on immovable property (number)

      • Preregistration procedures (for example, checking for liens, notarizing sales agreement, paying property transfer taxes)

      • Registration procedures in the economy's largest business city.

      • Postregistration procedures (for example, filling title with municipality)

        Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days)

      • Does not include time spent gathering information

      • Each procedure starts on a separate day – though procedures that can be fully completed online are an exception to this rule

      • Procedure is considered completed once final document is received

      • No prior contact with officials

        Cost required to complete each procedure (% of property value)

      • Official costs only (such as administrative fees, duties and taxes).

      • Value Added Tax, Capital Gains Tax and illicit payments are excluded

        Quality of land administration index (0-30)

      • Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)

      • Transparency of information index (0–6)

      • Geographic coverage index (0–8)

      • Land dispute resolution index (0–8)

      • Equal access to property rights index (-2–0)

      To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the parties to the transaction, the property and the procedures are used.

      The parties (buyer and seller):

      • Are limited liability companies (or the legal equivalent).

      • Are located in the periurban (that is, on the outskirts of the city but still within its official limits) area of the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

      • Are 100% domestically and privately owned.

      • Perform general commercial activities.

        The property (fully owned by the seller):

      • Has a value of 50 times income per capita, which equals the sale price.

      • Is fully owned by the seller.

      • Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years.

      • Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes.

      • Is located in a periurban commercial zone (that is, on the outskirts of the city but still within its official limits), and no rezoning is required.

      • Consists of land and a building. The land area is 557.4 square meters (6,000 square feet). A two- story warehouse of 929 square meters (10,000 square feet) is located on the land. The warehouse is 10 years old, is in good condition, has no heating system and complies with all safety standards, building codes and legal requirements. The property, consisting of land and building, will be transferred in its entirety.

      • Will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase.

      • Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind.

      • Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits, such as for residential use, industrial plants, waste storage or certain types of agricultural activities, are required.

      • Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it.

      image

      Registering Property – Ireland

      Indicator

      Ireland

      OECD high income

      Best Regulatory Performance

      Procedures (number)

      5

      4.7

      1 (5 Economies)

      Time (days)

      31.5

      23.6

      1 (2 Economies)

      Cost (% of property value)

      6.5

      4.2

      0.0 (Saudi Arabia)

      Quality of the land administration index (0-30)

      23.5

      23.2

      None in 2018/19

      Figure – Registering Property in Ireland – Score

      image

      66.7

      image

      85.4

      image

      56.5

      image

      78.3

      Procedures

      Time

      Cost

      Quality of the land administration index

      Figure – Registering Property in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

      DB 2020 Registering Property Score

      image

      0 100

      77.8: Canada (Rank: 36)

      77.0: Regional Average (OECD high income)

      75.7: United Kingdom (Rank: 41)

      71.7: Ireland (Rank: 60)

      66.6: Germany (Rank: 76)

      63.3: France (Rank: 99)

      Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of registering property is determined by sorting their scores for registering property. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

      Figure – Registering Property in Ireland – Procedure, Time and Cost

      image

      image

      Time (days) Cost (% of property value)

      image

      7

      30

      Cost (% of property value)

      6

      25

      5

      Time (days)

      20

      4

      15

      3

      10

      2

      5 1

      0 0

      1 * 2 3 4 5

      Procedures (number)

      * This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

      Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website (http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

      Figure – Registering Property in Ireland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

      image

      26.0

      23.5

      24.0

      23.0

      23.2

      21.5

      27

      26

      Index score

      25

      24

      23

      22

      21

      20

      19

      Ireland Canada France Germany United

      Kingdom

      OECD

      high income

      Details – Registering Property in Ireland – Procedure, Time and Cost

      image

      1

      Conveyancing and standard requisitions on title ordered by the Incorporated Law Society of Ireland

      Agency : Lawyer's office

      The Incorporated Law Society of Ireland has a comprehensive set of conveyancing documents which are standard requisitions on title, investigating various matters including the following: services, easements and rights, obligations, outgoings, bankruptcy, taxation, building control and environmental regulations, fire services and health and safety, etc.

      20 days

      paid in Procedure 3

      In the case of a commercial property transaction a solicitor might consider it prudent to have the physical boundaries of the property on sale surveyed by an architect to ensure that it correlates with the boundaries of the property as shown on the Land Registry Map. To get an architect to certify the identity of the property will take 5 additional days and cost about € 500. The cost is subject to 23 % VAT.

      In addition, an architect often performs a planning search – a review of planning documentation pertaining to the transacted property – to identify any limitations on the property uses. The planning documents from year 2000 or later are provided by the Planning Department of the Dublin City Council instantly online at no cost. Older files can be accessed on the City Council premises on request and at no cost (only standard photocopying charges may apply). It usually takes 2 days for the Dublin City Council to prepare requested historical documentation for review.

      No.

      Procedures

      Time to Complete

      Associated Costs

      image

    2. Obtain official certified copies of the property's folio and title map

    Agency : Property Registration Authority of Ireland

    Applications for a certified copy of the Folio and Title Plan can be made online on the website Landdirect.ie. Paper copies are delivered to the applicant within 3 days of request.

    3 days EUR 40; (For all searches)

    image

    3 Lawyer drafts contract and contracts are exchanged

    Agency : Lawyer's office

    The vendor's lawyer would draft the sale-purchase agreement, whilst the purchaser's lawyer would draft the deed which effects the title transfer.

    1 day EUR 13,035.36; (between

    0.25% and 0.75% of property value)

    4 Submission of documents to Revenue Commissioners

    Agency : Revenue Commissioners

    This procedure involves submission of documents to Revenue Commissioners for payment of stamp duty & impression of “Particular Delivered” stamp. Since January 1, 2010, the stamping of deeds is done online. The stamp duty is submitted electronically to the Revenue Commissioners, which in turn sends a certificate of confirmation of stamping via email to the purchaser's solicitor.

    image

    5

    Lodgment of application for registration at the Land Registry

    Agency : Land Registry

    Once the title deed to the purchaser has been stamped, it can be registered at the Land Registry using the application Form 17. A facility to make an application for registration electronically via the PRA's electronic access system is available while the supporting documents are sent by post ( mailing usually takes 2 days) Supporting documentation will include the deed of transfer and payment of the appropriate fees.

    10 days

    EUR 800

    It is normally the case that the buyer's solicitor will prepare the deed of transfer and will send the draft deed to the seller's solicitor for approval. In certain cases, the vendor's solicitor will draft the deed (e.g. lease of building estate grant). When the deed of transfer is finally agreed between the parties, it will be signed by the parties to the transfer.

    On completion of the application the Property Registration Authority will advise the lodging party of the completion.

    The title deed must be stamped within 28 days of the date of execution of the deed or penalties will be incurred.

    Less than one day, online

    EUR 156,424.32; (6% of

    the value of the property for non-residential properties.)

    image

    Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

    image

    Details – Registering Property in Ireland – Measure of Quality

    Answer

    Score

    Quality of the land administration index (0-30)

    23.5

    Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)

    8.0

    Type of land registration system in the economy:

    Dual system (Title & Deed)

    What is the institution in charge of immovable property registration?

    Property Registration Authority

    In what format are past and newly issued land records kept at the immovable property registry of the largest business city of the economy —in a paper format or in a computerized format (scanned or fully digital)?

    Computer/Fully digital

    2.0

    Is there a comprehensive and functional electronic database for checking for encumbrances (liens, mortgages, restrictions and the like)?

    Yes

    1.0

    Institution in charge of the plans showing legal boundaries in the largest business city:

    Property Registration Authority

    In what format are past and newly issued cadastral plans kept at the mapping agency of the largest business city of the economy—in a paper format or in a computerized format (scanned or fully digital)?

    Computer/Fully digital

    2.0

    Is there an electronic database for recording boundaries, checking plans and providing cadastral information (geographic information system)?

    Yes

    1.0

    Is the information recorded by the immovable property registration agency and the cadastral or mapping agency kept in a single database, in different but linked databases or in separate databases?

    Single database

    1.0

    Do the immovable property registration agency and cadastral or mapping agency use the same identification number for properties?

    Yes

    1.0

    Transparency of information index (0–6)

    4.5

    Who is able to obtain information on land ownership at the agency in charge of immovable property registration in the largest business city?

    Freely accessible by anyone

    1.0

    Is the list of documents that are required to complete any type of property transaction made publicly available– and if so, how?

    Yes, online

    0.5

    Link for online access:

    Landdirect.ie

    Is the applicable fee schedule for any type of property transaction at the agency in charge of immovable property registration in the largest business city made publicly available–and if so, how?

    Yes, online

    0.5

    Link for online access:

    Landdirect.ie

    Does the agency in charge of immovable property registration agency formally commit to deliver a legally binding document that proves property ownership within a specific timeframe –and if so, how does it communicate the service standard?

    Yes, online

    0.5

    Link for online access:

    Landdirect.ie

    Is there a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration?

    No

    0.0

    Contact information:

    Are there publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the immovable property registration agency?

    Yes

    0.5

    Number of property transfers in the largest business city in 2018:

    19189.0

    Who is able to consult maps of land plots in the largest business city?

    Freely accessible by anyone

    0.5

    Is the applicable fee schedule for accessing maps of land plots made publicly available—and if so, how?

    Yes, online

    0.5

    Link for online access:

    Landdirect.ie

    Does the cadastral/mapping agency formally specifies the timeframe to deliver an updated cadastral plan—and if so, how does it communicate the service standard?

    Yes, online

    0.5

    Link for online access:

    Landdirect.ie

    Is there a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the cadastral or mapping agency?

    No

    0.0

    Contact information:

    Geographic coverage index (0–8)

    4.0

    Are all privately held land plots in the largest business city formally registered at the immovable property registry?

    Yes

    2.0

    Are all privately held land plots in the economy formally registered at the immovable property registry?

    No

    0.0

    Are all privately held land plots in the largest business city mapped?

    Yes

    2.0

    Are all privately held land plots in the economy mapped?

    No

    0.0

    Land dispute resolution index (0–8)

    7.0

    Does the law require that all property sale transactions be registered at the immovable property registry to make them opposable to third parties?

    Yes

    1.5

    Legal basis:

    Section 51(2) of the Registration of Title Act 1964

    Is the system of immovable property registration subject to a state or private guarantee?

    Yes

    0.5

    Type of guarantee:

    State guarantee

    Legal basis:

    Section 31 of the Registration of Title Act, 1964 31. (1) The

    register shall be conclusive evidence of the title of the owner to the land as appearing on the register and of any right, privilege, appurtenance or burden as appearing thereon; and such title shall not, in the absence of actual fraud, be in any way affected in consequence of such owner having notice of any deed, document, or matter relating to the land; but nothing in this Act shall interfere with the jurisdiction of any court of competent jurisdiction based on the ground of actual fraud or mistake, and the court may upon such ground make an order directing the register to be rectified in such manner and on such terms as it thinks just. (2) The validity of registration of ownership of unregistered land shall not be affected by reason that the person thereby shown to be registered as owner was then dead and any person who proves to the satisfaction of the Registrar that he is entitled to the land may be registered as owner thereof

    Is there a is a specific, out-of-court compensation mechanism to cover for losses incurred by parties who engaged in good faith in a property transaction based on erroneous information certified by the immovable property registry?

    Yes

    0.5

    Legal basis:

    Section 120 of the Registaration of Ttile Act, 1964 as amended by Section 69 of the Registration of Deeds and Titles Act, 2006

    Does the legal system require a control of legality of the documents necessary for a property transaction (e.g., checking the compliance of contracts with requirements of the law)?

    Yes

    0.5

    If yes, who is responsible for checking the legality of the documents?

    Registrar; Lawyer;

    Does the legal system require verification of the identity of the parties to a property transaction?

    Yes

    0.5

    If yes, who is responsible for verifying the identity of the parties?

    Registrar; Lawyer;

    Is there a national database to verify the accuracy of government issued identity documents?

    Yes

    1.0

    What is the Court of first instance in charge of a case involving a standard land dispute between two local businesses over tenure rights for a property worth 50 times gross national income (GNI) per capita and located in the largest business city?

    High Court

    How long does it take on average to obtain a decision from the first-instance court for such a case (without appeal)?

    Between 1 and 2 years

    2.0

    Are there publicly available statistics on the number of land disputes at the economy level in the first instance court?

    Yes

    0.5

    Number of land disputes in the economy in 2018:

    217.0

    Equal access to property rights index (-2–0)

    0.0

    Do unmarried men and unmarried women have equal ownership rights to property?

    Yes

    Do married men and married women have equal ownership rights to property?

    Yes

    0.0

    image

    Getting Credit

    This topic explores two sets of issues—the strength of credit reporting systems and the effectiveness of collateral and bankruptcy laws in facilitating lending. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

    image

    What the indicators measure

    Case study assumptions

    Strength of legal rights index (0–12)

    • Rights of borrowers and lenders through collateral laws (0-10)

    • Protection of secured creditors’ rights through bankruptcy laws (0-2)

      Depth of credit information index (0–8)

    • Scope and accessibility of credit information distributed by credit bureaus and credit registries (0-8)

      Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)

    • Number of individuals and firms listed in largest credit bureau as a percentage of adult population

      Credit registry coverage (% of adults)

    • Number of individuals and firms listed in credit registry as a percentage of adult population

    Doing Business assesses the sharing of credit information and the legal rights of borrowers and lenders with respect to secured transactions through 2 sets of indicators. The depth of credit information index measures rules and practices affecting the coverage, scope and accessibility of credit information available through a credit registry or a credit bureau. The strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. For each economy it is first determined whether a unitary secured transactions system exists. Then two case scenarios, case A and case B, are used to determine how a nonpossessory security interest is created, publicized and enforced according to the law. Special emphasis is given to how the collateral registry operates (if registration of security interests is possible). The case scenarios involve a secured borrower, company ABC, and a secured lender, BizBank.

    In some economies the legal framework for secured transactions will allow only case A or case B (not both) to apply. Both cases examine the same set of legal provisions relating to the use of movable collateral.

    Several assumptions about the secured borrower (ABC) and lender (BizBank) are used:

    • ABC is a domestic limited liability company (or its legal equivalent).

    • ABC has up to 50 employees.

    • ABC has its headquarters and only base of operations in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

    • Both ABC and BizBank are 100% domestically owned.

    The case scenarios also involve assumptions. In case A, as collateral for the loan, ABC grants BizBank a nonpossessory security interest in one category of movable assets, for example, its machinery or its inventory. ABC wants to keep both possession and ownership of the collateral. In economies where the law does not allow nonpossessory security interests in movable property, ABC and BizBank use a fiduciary transfer-of-title arrangement (or a similar substitute for nonpossessory security interests).

    In case B, ABC grants BizBank a business charge, enterprise charge, floating charge or any charge that gives BizBank a security interest over ABC’s combined movable assets (or as much of ABC’s movable assets as possible). ABC keeps ownership and possession of the assets.

    image

    Getting Credit – Ireland

    Indicator

    Ireland

    OECD high income

    Best Regulatory Performance

    Strength of legal rights index (0-12)

    7

    6.1

    12 (5 Economies)

    Depth of credit information index (0-8)

    7

    6.8

    8 (53 Economies)

    Credit registry coverage (% of adults)

    94.4

    24.4

    100.0 (2 Economies)

    Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)

    100.0

    66.7

    100.0 (14 Economies)

    Figure – Getting Credit in Ireland – Score

    image

    70.0

    Score – Getting Credit

    Figure – Getting Credit in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    DB 2020 Getting Credit Score

    image

    0 100

    85.0: Canada (Rank: 15)

    75.0: United Kingdom (Rank: 37)

    70.0: Germany (Rank: 48)

    70.0: Ireland (Rank: 48)

    64.3: Regional Average (OECD high income) 50.0: France (Rank: 104)

    Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of getting credit is determined by sorting their scores for getting credit. These scores are the sum of the scores for the strength of legal rights index and the depth of credit information index.

    Figure – Legal Rights in Ireland and comparator economies

    image

    9

    7

    7

    6 6.1

    4

    10

    9

    Index Score

    8

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    Ireland Canada France Germany United

    Kingdom

    OECD

    high income

    Details – Legal Rights in Ireland

    image

    Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 7

    image

    Does the law allow businesses to grant a non possessory security right in a single category of movable assets, without requiring a specific description

    of collateral?

    Yes

    Does an integrated or unified legal framework for secured transactions that extends to the creation, publicity and enforcement of functional equivalents No to security interests in movable assets exist in the economy?

    image

    May a security right extend to future or after-acquired assets, and does it extend automatically to the products, proceeds and replacements of the

    original assets?

    Yes

    Does the law allow businesses to grant a non possessory security right in substantially all of its assets, without requiring a specific description of collateral?

    Yes

    image

    Is a collateral registry in operation for both incorporated and non-incorporated entities, that is unified geographically and by asset type, with an

    electronic database indexed by debtor's name?

    No

    Is a general description of debts and obligations permitted in collateral agreements; can all types of debts and obligations be secured between parties; and can the collateral agreement include a maximum amount for which the assets are encumbered?

    Yes

    Does a notice-based collateral registry exist in which all functional equivalents can be registered? No

    Does a modern collateral registry exist in which registrations, amendments, cancellations and searches can be performed online by any interested third No party?

    Are secured creditors paid first (i.e. before tax claims and employee claims) when a debtor defaults outside an insolvency procedure? Yes

    Are secured creditors paid first (i.e. before tax claims and employee claims) when a business is liquidated? Yes

    image

    Does the law allow parties to agree on out of court enforcement at the time a security interest is created? Does the law allow the secured creditor to sell Yes the collateral through public auction or private tender, as well as, for the secured creditor to keep the asset in satisfaction of the debt?

    Are secured creditors subject to an automatic stay on enforcement when a debtor enters a court-supervised reorganization procedure? Does the law No protect secured creditors’ rights by providing clear grounds for relief from the stay and sets a time limit for it?

    Figure – Credit Information in Ireland and comparator economies

    image

    8

    8

    8

    7

    6.8

    6

    9

    8

    Index Score

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    Ireland Canada France Germany United

    Kingdom

    OECD

    high income

    image

    Details – Credit Information in Ireland

    image

    Depth of credit information index (0-8)

    Credit bureau

    Credit registry

    Score

    Are data on both firms and individuals distributed?

    Yes

    Yes

    1

    image

    Are data from retailers or utility companies – in addition to data from banks and

    financial institutions – distributed?

    No

    No

    0

    Are both positive and negative credit data distributed? Yes Yes 1

    image

    Are data on loan amounts below 1% of income per capita distributed?

    Yes

    Yes

    1

    Are at least 2 years of historical data distributed? (Credit bureaus and registries that distribute more than 10 years of negative data or erase data on defaults as soon as they are repaid obtain a score of 0 for this component.)

    Yes No 1

    By law, do borrowers have the right to access their data in the credit bureau or credit registry?

    Yes Yes 1

    image

    Can banks and financial institutions access borrowers’ credit information online (for example, through an online platform, a system-to-system connection or both)?

    Yes Yes 1

    image

    Total Score ("yes" to either public bureau or private registry)

    7

    Are bureau or registry credit scores offered as a value-added service to help banks and financial institutions assess the creditworthiness of borrowers?

    Yes No 1

    image

    Note: An economy receives a score of 1 if there is a "yes" to either bureau or registry. If the credit bureau or registry is not operational or covers less than 5% of the adult population, the total score on the depth of credit information index is 0.

    Coverage

    Credit bureau

    Credit registry

    Number of individuals

    5,508,281

    2,800,000

    Number of firms

    538,513

    140,000

    Total

    6,046,794

    2,940,000

    Percentage of adult population

    100.0

    94.4

    image

    Protecting Minority Investors

    This topic measures the strength of minority shareholder protections against misuse of corporate assets by directors for their personal gain as well as shareholder rights, governance safeguards and corporate transparency requirements that reduce the risk of abuse. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

    image

    What the indicators measure

    Case study assumptions

    • Extent of disclosure index (0–10): Disclosure, review, and approval requirements for related-party transactions

    • Extent of director liability index (0–10): Ability of minority shareholders to sue and hold interested directors liable for prejudicial related-party transactions; Available legal remedies (damages, disgorgement of profits, disqualification

      from managerial position(s) for one year or more, rescission of the transaction)

    • Ease of shareholder suits index (0–10): Access to internal corporate documents; Evidence obtainable during trial and allocation of legal expenses

    • Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-30): Sum of the extent of disclosure, extent of director liability and ease of shareholder suits indices

    • Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6): Shareholders’ rights and role in major corporate decisions

    • Extent of ownership and control index (0-7): Governance safeguards protecting shareholders from undue board control and entrenchment

    • Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7): Corporate transparency on ownership stakes, compensation, audits and financial prospects

    • Extent of shareholder governance index (0–20): Sum of the extent of shareholders rights, extent of ownership and control and extent of corporate transparency indices

    • Strength of minority investor protection index (0–50): Sum of the extent of conflict of interest regulation and extent of shareholder governance indices

    To make the data comparable across economies, a case study uses several assumptions about the business and the transaction.

    The business (Buyer):

    • Is a publicly traded corporation listed on the economy’s most important stock exchange.

    • Has a board of directors and a chief executive officer (CEO) who may legally act on behalf of Buyer where permitted, even if this is not specifically required by law.

    • Has a supervisory board in economies with a two-tier board system on which Mr. James appointed 60% of the shareholder-elected members.

    • Has not adopted bylaws or articles of association that go beyond the minimum requirements. Does not follow codes, principles, recommendations or guidelines that are not mandatory.

    • Is a manufacturing company with its own distribution network.

      The transaction involves the following details:

    • Mr. James owns 60% of Buyer, sits on Buyer’s board of directors and elected two directors to Buyer’s five-member board.

    • Mr. James also owns 90% of Seller, a company that operates a chain of retail hardware stores. Seller recently closed a large number of its stores.

    • Mr. James proposes that Buyer purchase Seller’s unused fleet of trucks to expand Buyer’s distribution of its food products, a proposal to which Buyer agrees. The price is equal to 10% of Buyer’s assets and is higher than the market value.

    • The proposed transaction is part of the company’s principal activity and is not outside the authority of the company.

    • Buyer enters into the transaction. All required approvals are obtained, and all required disclosures made—that is, the transaction was not entered into fraudulently.

    • The transaction causes damages to Buyer. Shareholders sue Mr. James and the executives and directors that approved the transaction.

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    Stock exchange information

    Stock exchange

    Irish Stock Exchange

    Protecting Minority Investors – Ireland

    image

    Listed firms with equity securities

    55

    Stock exchange URL http://www.ise.ie

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    Indicator

    Ireland

    OECD high income

    Best Regulatory Performance

    Extent of disclosure index (0-10)

    9.0

    6.5

    10 (13 Economies)

    City Covered Dublin

    image

    image

    Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)

    9.0

    7.3

    10 (Djibouti)

    Extent of director liability index (0-10) 8.0 5.3 10 (3 Economies)

    image

    Extent of ownership and control index (0-7)

    3.0

    4.5

    7 (9 Economies)

    Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 5.0 4.7 6 (19 Economies)

    image

    Figure – Protecting Minority in Ireland – Score

    image

    80.0

    Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 6.0 5.7 7 (13 Economies)

    image

    Score – Protecting Minority Investors

    Figure – Protecting Minority Investors in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    DB 2020 Protecting Minority Investors Score

    image

    0 100

    84.0: Canada (Rank: 7)

    84.0: United Kingdom (Rank: 7)

    80.0: Ireland (Rank: 13)

    68.2: Regional Average (OECD high income) 68.0: France (Rank: 45)

    62.0: Germany (Rank: 61)

    Note: The ranking of economies on the strength of minority investor protections is determined by sorting their scores for protecting minority investors. These scores are the simple average of the scores for the extent of conflict of interest regulation index and the extent of shareholder governance index.

    Figure – Protecting Minority Investors in Ireland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

    Ireland

    Canada

    France

    Germany

    United Kingdom

    OECD high income

    image

    image

    6

    8

    9

    3

    5

    9

    6

    9

    8

    6

    4

    9

    7

    3

    8

    6

    4

    6

    6

    5

    5

    5

    5

    5

    6

    7

    10

    5

    6

    8

    5.6

    5.6

    6.6

    4.3

    4.5

    7.4

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

    Sub-Indicator Score

    image

    image

    image

    image

    image

    image

    Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) Extent of director liability index (0-10) Extent of disclosure index (0-10) Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)

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    Details – Protecting Minority Investors in Ireland – Measure of Quality

    Answer

    Score

    Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-30)

    Extent of disclosure index (0-10)

    9.0

    Whose decision is sufficient to approve the Buyer-Seller transaction? (0-3)

    Shareholders excluding interested parties

    3.0

    Must an external body review the terms of the transaction before it takes place? (0-1)

    No

    0.0

    Must Mr. James disclose his conflict of interest to the board of directors? (0-2)

    Full disclosure of all material facts

    2.0

    Must Buyer disclose the transaction in periodic filings (e.g. annual reports)? (0-2)

    Disclosure on the transaction and on the conflict of interest

    2.0

    Must Buyer immediately disclose the transaction to the public? (0-2)

    Disclosure on the transaction and on the conflict of interest

    2.0

    Extent of director liability index (0-10)

    8.0

    Can shareholders representing 10% of Buyer's share capital sue for the damage the transaction caused to Buyer? (0-1)

    Yes

    1.0

    Can shareholders hold Mr. James liable for the damage the transaction caused to Buyer? (0-2)

    Liable if unfair or prejudicial

    2.0

    Can shareholders hold the other directors liable for the damage the transaction caused to Buyer? (0-2)

    Liable if negligent

    1.0

    Must Mr. James pay damages for the harm caused to Buyer upon a successful claim by shareholders? (0-1)

    Yes

    1.0

    Must Mr. James repay profits made from the transaction upon a successful claim by shareholders? (0-1)

    Yes

    1.0

    Is Mr. James disqualified upon a successful claim by shareholders? (0-1)

    Yes

    1.0

    Can a court void the transaction upon a successful claim by shareholders? (0-2)

    Voidable if negligently concluded

    1.0

    Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)

    9.0

    Before suing, can shareholders representing 10% of Buyer's share capital inspect the transaction documents? (0-1)

    Yes

    1.0

    Can the plaintiff obtain any documents from the defendant and witnesses at trial? (0-3)

    Any relevant document

    3.0

    Can the plaintiff request categories of documents from the defendant without identifying specific ones? (0-1)

    Yes

    1.0

    Can the plaintiff directly question the defendant and witnesses at trial? (0-2)

    Yes

    2.0

    Is the level of proof required for civil suits lower than that of criminal cases? (0-1)

    Yes

    1.0

    Can shareholder plaintiffs recover their legal expenses from the company? (0-2)

    Yes if successful

    1.0

    Extent of shareholder governance index (0-20)

    Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6)

    5.0

    Does the sale of 51% of Buyer's assets require shareholder approval?

    No

    0.0

    Can shareholders representing 10% of Buyer's share capital call for a meeting of shareholders?

    Yes

    1.0

    Must Buyer obtain its shareholders’ approval every time it issues new shares?

    Yes

    1.0

    Do shareholders automatically receive preemption rights every time Buyer issues new shares?

    Yes

    1.0

    Do shareholders elect and dismiss the external auditor?

    Yes

    1.0

    Are changes to the rights of a class of shares only possible if the holders of the affected shares approve?

    Yes

    1.0

    Extent of ownership and control index (0-7)

    3.0

    Is it forbidden to appoint the same individual as CEO and chairperson of the board of directors?

    No

    0.0

    Must the board of directors include independent and nonexecutive board members?

    No

    0.0

    Can shareholders remove members of the board of directors without cause before the end of their term?

    Yes

    1.0

    Must the board of directors include a separate audit committee exclusively comprising board members?

    No

    0.0

    Must a potential acquirer make a tender offer to all shareholders upon acquiring 50% of Buyer?

    Yes

    1.0

    Must Buyer pay declared dividends within a maximum period set by law?

    No

    0.0

    Is a subsidiary prohibited from acquiring shares issued by its parent company?

    Yes

    1.0

    Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7)

    6.0

    Must Buyer disclose direct and indirect beneficial ownership stakes representing 5%?

    Yes

    1.0

    Must Buyer disclose information about board members’ primary employment and directorships in other companies?

    Yes

    1.0

    Must Buyer disclose the compensation of individual managers?

    Yes

    1.0

    Must a detailed notice of general meeting be sent 21 days before the meeting?

    No

    0.0

    Can shareholders representing 5% of Buyer’s share capital put items on the general meeting agenda?

    Yes

    1.0

    Must Buyer's annual financial statements be audited by an external auditor?

    Yes

    1.0

    Must Buyer disclose its audit reports to the public?

    Yes

    1.0

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    Paying Taxes

    This topic records the taxes and mandatory contributions that a medium-size company must pay or withhold in a given year, as well as the administrative burden of paying taxes and contributions and complying with postfiling procedures (VAT refund and tax audit). The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019 covering for the Paying Taxes indicator calendar year 2018 (January 1, 2018 – December 31, 2018). See the methodology for more information.

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    What the indicators measure

    Case study assumptions

    Tax payments for a manufacturing company in 2018 (number per year adjusted for electronic and joint filing and payment)

    • Total number of taxes and contributions paid or withheld, including consumption taxes (value added tax, sales tax or goods and service tax)

    • Method and frequency of filing and payment

      Time required to comply with 3 major taxes (hours per year)

    • Collecting information, computing tax payable

    • Preparing separate tax accounting books, if required

    • Completing tax return, filing with agencies

    • Arranging payment or withholding

      Total tax and contribution rate (% of commercial profits)

    • Profit or corporate income tax

    • Social contributions, labor taxes paid by employer

    • Property and property transfer taxes

    • Dividend, capital gains, financial transactions taxes

    • Waste collection, vehicle, road and other taxes

      Postfiling Index

    • Time to comply with VAT refund (hours)

    • Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks)

    • Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours)

    • Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks)

    Using a case scenario, Doing Business records taxes and mandatory contributions a medium size company must pay in a year, and measures the administrative burden of paying taxes, contributions and dealing with postfiling processes. Information is also compiled on frequency of filing and payments, time taken to comply with tax laws, time taken to comply with the requirements of postfiling processes and time waiting.

    To make data comparable across economies, several assumptions are used:

    • TaxpayerCo is a medium-size business that started operations on January 1, 2017. It produces ceramic flowerpots and sells them at retail. All taxes and contributions recorded are paid in the second year of operation (calendar year 2018). Taxes and mandatory contributions are measured at all levels of government.

      The VAT refund process:

    • In June 2018, TaxpayerCo. makes a large capital purchase: the value of the machine is 65 times income per capita of the economy. Sales are equally spread per month (1,050 times income per capita divided by 12) and cost of goods sold are equally expensed per month (875 times income per capita divided by 12). The machinery seller is registered for VAT and excess input VAT incurred in June will be fully recovered after four consecutive months if the VAT rate is the same for inputs, sales and the machine and the tax reporting period is every month. Input VAT will exceed Output VAT in June 2018.

      The corporate income tax audit process:

    • An error in calculation of income tax liability (for example, use of incorrect tax depreciation rates, or incorrectly treating an expense as tax deductible) leads to an incorrect income tax return and a corporate income tax underpayment. TaxpayerCo. discovered the error and voluntarily notified the tax authority. The value of the underpaid income tax liability is 5% of the corporate income tax liability due. TaxpayerCo. submits corrected information after the deadline for submitting the annual tax return, but within the tax assessment period.

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    Paying Taxes – Ireland

    Indicator

    Ireland

    OECD high income

    Best Regulatory Performance

    Payments (number per year)

    9

    10.3

    3 (2 Economies)

    Time (hours per year)

    82

    158.8

    49 (3 Economies)

    Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit)

    26.1

    39.9

    26.1 (33 Economies)

    Postfiling index (0-100)

    93.4

    86.7

    None in 2018/19

    Figure – Paying Taxes in Ireland – Score

    image

    90.0

    image

    95.0

    image

    99.9

    image

    93.4

    Payments

    Time

    Total tax and contribution rate

    Postfiling index

    Figure – Paying Taxes in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    DB 2020 Paying Taxes Score

    image

    0 100

    94.6: Ireland (Rank: 4)

    88.1: Canada (Rank: 19)

    86.2: United Kingdom (Rank: 27)

    84.3: Regional Average (OECD high income)

    82.2: Germany (Rank: 46)

    79.2: France (Rank: 61)

    Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of paying taxes is determined by sorting their scores for paying taxes. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators, with a threshold and a nonlinear transformation applied to one of the component indicators, the total tax and contribution rate. The threshold is defined as the total tax and contribution rate at the 15th percentile of the overall distribution for all years included in the analysis up to and including Doing Business 2015, which is 26.1%. All economies with a total tax and contribution rate below this threshold receive the same score as the economy at the threshold.

    Figure – Paying Taxes in Ireland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

    image

    93.4

    92.4

    97.7

    86.7

    73.2

    71.0

    120

    Index score

    100

    80

    60

    40

    20

    0

    Ireland Canada France Germany United

    Kingdom

    OECD

    high income

    Details – Paying Taxes in Ireland

    image

    Tax or Payments

    mandatory (number) contribution

    Notes on Payments

    Time (hours)

    Statutory tax rate

    Tax base

    Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit)

    Notes on TTCR

    Employer paid – 1.0

    Social security contributions

    online

    40.5

    10.85%

    gross salaries

    12.36

    Corporate 1.0

    income tax

    online

    12.0

    12.5%

    taxable profits

    10.70

    Capital gains 0.0

    online and jointly

    33%

    gain

    1.67

    Property tax 1.0

    Rateable valuation

    Annual rate* valuation

    1.07

    Motor Renewal 1.0

    tax (road tax)

    various rate

    vehicle weight

    0.21

    Environmental 1.0

    Duties

    €75 per tonne

    tonne of waste

    0.10

    Stamp duty 1.0

    (insurance contracts)

    3%

    insurance premium

    0.03

    Tax on check 1.0

    transactions

    50c per check

    number of checks

    0.01

    Fuel tax 1.0

    EUR 479.02

    per 1000 liter

    0.00

    small amount

    Employee paid – 0.0

    Social security contributions

    online and jointly

    4%

    gross salaries

    0.00

    withheld

    Universal Social 0.0

    Charge on Employees

    jointly

    0.5%, 2%, 4.75%

    & 8%

    gross salaries

    0.00

    withheld

    Value added tax 1.0

    (VAT)

    online

    29.0

    23%

    value added

    0.00

    not included

    Totals 9

    82

    26.1

    Details – Paying Taxes in Ireland – Tax by Type

    image

    Taxes by type

    Answer

    Profit tax (% of profit)

    12.4

    Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)

    12.4

    Other taxes (% of profit)

    1.4

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    Details – Paying Taxes in Ireland – Measure of Quality

    Answer

    Score

    Postfiling index (0-100)

    93.4

    VAT refunds

    Does VAT exist?

    Yes

    Does a VAT refund process exist per the case study?

    Yes

    Restrictions on VAT refund process

    none

    Percentage of cases exposed to a VAT audit (%)

    25% – 49%

    Is there a mandatory carry forward period?

    No

    Time to comply with VAT refund (hours)

    0.0

    100

    Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks)

    16.0

    74.6

    Corporate income tax audits

    Does corporate income tax exist?

    Yes

    Percentage of cases exposed to a corporate income tax audit (%)

    0% – 24%

    Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours)

    2.0

    99.1

    Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks)

    No tax audit per case study scenario

    100

    Notes: Names of taxes have been standardized. For instance income tax, profit tax, tax on company's income are all named corporate income tax in this table. The hours for VAT include all the VAT and sales taxes applicable.

    The hours for Social Security include all the hours for labor taxes and mandatory contributions in general.

    The postfiling index is the average of the scores on time to comply with VAT refund, time to obtain a VAT refund, time to comply with a corporate income tax correction and time to complete a corporate income tax correction.

    N/A = Not applicable.

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    Trading across Borders

    Doing Business records the time and cost associated with the logistical process of exporting and importing goods. Doing Business measures the time and cost (excluding tariffs) associated with three sets of procedures—documentary compliance, border compliance and domestic transport—within the overall process of exporting or importing a shipment of goods. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

    image

    What the indicators measure

    Case study assumptions

    Documentary compliance

    • Obtaining, preparing and submitting documents during transport, clearance, inspections and port or border handling in origin economy

    • Obtaining, preparing and submitting documents required by destination economy and any transit economies

    • Covers all documents required by law and in practice, including electronic submissions of information

      Border compliance

    • Customs clearance and inspections

    • Inspections by other agencies (if applied to more than 20% of shipments)

    • Handling and inspections that take place at the economy’s port or border

      Domestic transport

    • Loading or unloading of the shipment at the warehouse or port/border

    • Transport between warehouse and port/border

    • Traffic delays and road police checks while shipment is en route

    To make the data comparable across economies, a few assumptions are made about the traded goods and the transactions:

    Time: Time is measured in hours, and 1 day is 24 hours (for example, 22 days are recorded as 22×24=528 hours). If customs clearance takes 7.5 hours, the data are recorded as is. Alternatively, suppose documents are submitted to a customs agency at 8:00a.m., are processed overnight and can be picked up at 8:00a.m. the next day. The time for customs clearance would be recorded as 24 hours because the actual procedure took 24 hours.

    Cost: Insurance cost and informal payments for which no receipt is issued are excluded from the costs recorded. Costs are reported in U.S. dollars. Contributors are asked to convert local currency into U.S. dollars based on the exchange rate prevailing on the day they answer the questionnaire. Contributors are private sector experts in international trade logistics and are informed about exchange rates.

    Assumptions of the case study:

    • For all 190 economies covered by Doing Business, it is assumed a shipment is in a warehouse in the largest business city of the exporting economy and travels to a warehouse in the largest business city of the importing economy.

    • It is assumed each economy imports 15 metric tons of containerized auto parts (HS 8708) from its natural import partner—the economy from which it imports the largest value (price times quantity) of auto parts. It is assumed each economy exports the product of its comparative advantage (defined by the largest export value) to its natural export partner—the economy that is the largest purchaser of this product. Shipment value is assumed to be $50,000.

    • The mode of transport is the one most widely used for the chosen export or import product and the trading partner, as is the seaport or land border crossing.

    • All electronic information submissions requested by any government agency in connection with the shipment are considered to be documents obtained, prepared and submitted during the export or import process.

    • A port or border is a place (seaport or land border crossing) where merchandise can enter or leave an economy.

    • Relevant government agencies include customs, port authorities, road police, border guards, standardization agencies, ministries or departments of agriculture or industry, national security agencies and any other government authorities.

    image

    Trading across Borders – Ireland

    Indicator

    Ireland

    OECD high income

    Best Regulatory Performance

    Time to export: Border compliance (hours)

    24

    12.7

    1 (19 Economies)

    Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)

    305

    136.8

    0 (19 Economies)

    Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)

    1

    2.3

    1 (26 Economies)

    Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD)

    75

    33.4

    0 (20 Economies)

    Time to import: Border compliance (hours)

    24

    8.5

    1 (25 Economies)

    Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)

    253

    98.1

    0 (28 Economies)

    Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)

    1

    3.4

    1 (30 Economies)

    Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)

    75

    23.5

    0 (30 Economies)

    Figure – Trading across Borders in Ireland – Score

    Time

    Cost

    Time

    Cost

    Time

    Cost

    Time

    Cost

    to

    to

    to

    to

    to

    to

    to

    to

    export:

    export:

    export:

    export:

    import:

    import:

    import:

    import:

    Border

    Border

    Documentary

    Documentary

    Border

    Border

    Documentary

    Documentary

    compliance

    compliance

    compliance

    compliance

    compliance

    compliance

    compliance

    compliance

    Figure – Trading across Borders in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    image

    85.5

    image

    71.2

    image

    100.0

    image

    81.3

    image

    91.8

    image

    78.9

    image

    100.0

    image

    89.3

    DB 2020 Trading Across Borders Score

    image

    0 100

    94.3: Regional Average (OECD high income)

    93.8: United Kingdom (Rank: 33)

    91.8: Germany (Rank: 42)

    88.4: Canada (Rank: 51)

    87.2: Ireland (Rank: 52)

    100: France (Rank: 1)

    Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of trading across borders is determined by sorting their scores for trading across borders. These scores are the simple average of the scores for the time and cost for documentary compliance and border compliance to export and import.

    Figure – Trading across Borders in Ireland – Time and Cost

    image

    305

    24

    24

    253

    75

    75

    1

    1

    image

    30

    Time (hours)

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    Export

    image

    Export

    Time (hours) Cost (USD)

    Import

    Import

    350

    300

    Cost (USD)

    250

    200

    150

    100

    50

    0

    Border Compliance

    Documentary Compliance

    Border Compliance

    Documentary Compliance

    image

    Details – Trading across Borders in Ireland

    image

    Characteristics

    Export

    Import

    Product

    HS 29 : Organic chemicals

    HS 8708: Parts and accessories of motor vehicles

    image

    Border

    Dublin port

    Dublin port

    Trade partner United States United Kingdom

    image

    Domestic transport time (hours)

    2

    2

    Distance (km) 23 23

    image

    Domestic transport cost (USD) 360 459

    image

    Details – Trading across Borders in Ireland – Components of Border Compliance

    Time to Complete (hours)

    Associated Costs (USD)

    Export: Clearance and inspections required by customs authorities

    1.8

    85.0

    Export: Clearance and inspections required by agencies other than customs

    0.0

    0.0

    Export: Port or border handling

    24.0

    220.0

    Import: Clearance and inspections required by customs authorities

    0.5

    0.0

    Import: Clearance and inspections required by agencies other than customs

    0.0

    0.0

    Import: Port or border handling

    24.0

    253.0

    Details – Trading across Borders in Ireland – Trade Documents

    image

    Export

    Import

    Bill of lading Bill of lading

    Customs Export Declaration Commercial invoice

    Commercial Invoice Packing list

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    SOLAS certificate

    SOLAS certificate Intrastat

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    Enforcing Contracts

    The enforcing contracts indicator measures the time and cost for resolving a commercial dispute through a local first-instance court, and the quality of judicial processes index, evaluating whether each economy has adopted a series of good practices that promote quality and efficiency in the court system. The most recent round of data collection was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

    image

    What the indicators measure

    Case study assumptions

    Time required to enforce a contract through the courts (calendar days)

    • Time to file and serve the case

    • Time for trial and to obtain the judgment

    • Time to enforce the judgment

      Cost required to enforce a contract through the courts (% of claim value)

    • Average attorney fees

    • Court costs

    • Enforcement costs

      Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)

    • Court structure and proceedings (-1-5)

    • Case management (0-6)

    • Court automation (0-4)

    • Alternative dispute resolution (0-3)

    The dispute in the case study involves the breach of a sales contract between two domestic businesses. The case study assumes that the court hears an expert on the quality of the goods in dispute. This distinguishes the case from simple debt enforcement.

    To make the data on the time and comparable across economies, several assumptions about the case are used:

    • The dispute concerns a lawful transaction between two businesses (Seller and Buyer), both located in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

    • The Buyer orders custom-made furniture, then fails to pay alleging that the goods are not of adequate quality.

    • The value of the dispute is 200% of the income per capita or the equivalent in local currency of USD 5,000, whichever is greater.

    • The Seller sues the Buyer before the court with jurisdiction over commercial cases worth 200% of income per capita or $5,000 whichever is greater.

    • The Seller requests the pretrial attachment of the defendant’s movable assets to secure the claim.

    • The claim is disputed on the merits because of Buyer’s allegation that the quality of the goods was not adequate.

    • The judge decides in favor of the seller; there is no appeal.

    • The Seller enforces the judgment through a public sale of the Buyer’s movable assets.

    image

    Enforcing Contracts – Ireland

    Standardized Case

    Claim value

    EUR 100,689

    Court name

    Dublin High Court

    City Covered

    Dublin

    image

    Indicator

    Ireland

    OECD high income

    Best Regulatory Performance

    Time (days)

    650

    589.6

    120 (Singapore)

    Cost (% of claim value)

    26.9

    21.5

    0.1 (Bhutan)

    Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)

    8.5

    11.7

    None in 2018/19

    Figure – Enforcing Contracts in Ireland – Score

    image

    56.6

    image

    69.9

    image

    47.2

    Time

    Cost

    Quality of judicial processes index

    Figure – Enforcing Contracts in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    DB 2020 Enforcing Contracts Score

    image

    0 100

    74.1: Germany (Rank: 13)

    73.5: France (Rank: 16)

    68.7: United Kingdom (Rank: 34)

    67.8: Regional Average (OECD high income)

    57.9: Ireland (Rank: 91)

    57.1: Canada (Rank: 100)

    Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of enforcing contracts is determined by sorting their scores for enforcing contracts. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

    Figure – Enforcing Contracts in Ireland – Time and Cost

    1000

    Time (days) Cost (% of claim value)

    image

    910

    45.7

    650

    589.6

    22.3

    447

    499

    26.9

    21.5

    437

    17.4

    14.4

    image

    image

    Cost (% of claim value)

    50

    Time (days)

    800 40

    600 30

    400 20

    200 10

    0

    Canada France Germany Ireland OECD

    high income

    0

    United Kingdom

    Figure – Enforcing Contracts in Ireland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

    Ireland

    Canada

    France

    Germany

    United Kingdom

    OECD high income

    image

    image

    2.5

    1

    0.5

    4.5

    2

    2

    3

    4

    2.5

    3

    2

    4.5

    3

    1.5

    3.5

    4.5

    2

    5

    3.5

    4.5

    2.5

    3.2

    2.4

    3.6

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

    Sub-Indicator Score

    image

    image

    image

    image

    Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) Case management (0-6) Court automation (0-4) Court structure and proceedings (-1-5)

    Details – Enforcing Contracts in Ireland

    image

    Indicator

    Time (days) 650

    Trial and judgment 500

    Filing and service 60

    Cost (% of claim value) 26.9

    Enforcement of judgment 90

    Court fees 2.3

    Attorney fees 18.8

    Quality of judicial processes index (0-18) 8.5

    Enforcement fees 5.8

    Case management (0-6) 1.0

    Court structure and proceedings (-1-5) 4.5

    image

    Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 2.5

    Court automation (0-4) 0.5

    image

    Details – Enforcing Contracts in Ireland – Measure of Quality

    Answer

    Score

    Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)

    8.5

    Court structure and proceedings (-1-5)

    4.5

    1. Is there a court or division of a court dedicated solely to hearing commercial cases?

    Yes

    1.5

    2. Small claims court

    1.5

    2.a. Is there a small claims court or a fast-track procedure for small claims?

    Yes

    2.b. If yes, is self-representation allowed?

    Yes

    3. Is pretrial attachment available?

    Yes

    1.0

    4. Are new cases assigned randomly to judges?

    Yes, but manual

    0.5

    5. Does a woman's testimony carry the same evidentiary weight in court as a man's?

    Yes

    0.0

    Case management (0-6)

    1.0

    1. Time standards

    0.0

    1.a. Are there laws setting overall time standards for key court events in a civil case?

    Yes

    1.b. If yes, are the time standards set for at least three court events?

    No

    1.c. Are these time standards respected in more than 50% of cases?

    Yes

    2. Adjournments

    0.0

    2.a. Does the law regulate the maximum number of adjournments that can be granted?

    No

    2.b. Are adjournments limited to unforeseen and exceptional circumstances?

    No

    2.c. If rules on adjournments exist, are they respected in more than 50% of cases?

    n.a.

    3. Can two of the following four reports be generated about the competent court: (i) time to disposition report; (ii) clearance rate report; (iii) age of pending cases report; and (iv) single case progress report?

    Yes

    1.0

    4. Is a pretrial conference among the case management techniques used before the competent court?

    No

    0.0

    5. Are there any electronic case management tools in place within the competent court for use by judges?

    No

    0.0

    6. Are there any electronic case management tools in place within the competent court for use by lawyers?

    No

    0.0

    Court automation (0-4)

    0.5

    1. Can the initial complaint be filed electronically through a dedicated platform within the competent court?

    No

    0.0

    2. Is it possible to carry out service of process electronically for claims filed before the competent court?

    No

    0.0

    3. Can court fees be paid electronically within the competent court?

    No

    0.0

    4. Publication of judgments

    0.5

    4.a Are judgments rendered in commercial cases at all levels made available to the general public through publication in official gazettes, in newspapers or on the internet or court website?

    No

    4.b. Are judgments rendered in commercial cases at the appellate and supreme court level made available to the general public through publication in official gazettes, in newspapers or on the internet or court website?

    Yes

    Alternative dispute resolution (0-3)

    2.5

    1. Arbitration

    1.5

    1.a. Is domestic commercial arbitration governed by a consolidated law or consolidated chapter or section of the applicable code of civil procedure encompassing substantially all its aspects?

    Yes

    1.b. Are there any commercial disputes—aside from those that deal with public order or public policy— that cannot be submitted to arbitration?

    No

    1.c. Are valid arbitration clauses or agreements usually enforced by the courts?

    Yes

    2. Mediation/Conciliation 1.0

    image

    2.b. Are mediation, conciliation or both governed by a consolidated law or consolidated chapter or

    section of the applicable code of civil procedure encompassing substantially all their aspects (for example, definition, aim and scope of application, desig

    Yes

    2.a. Is voluntary mediation or conciliation available? Yes

    2.c. Are there financial incentives for parties to attempt mediation or conciliation (i.e., if mediation or No conciliation is successful, a refund of court filing fees, income tax credits or the like)?

    image

    image

    Resolving Insolvency

    Doing Business studies the time, cost and outcome of insolvency proceedings involving domestic legal entities. These variables are used to calculate the recovery rate, which is recorded as cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors through reorganization, liquidation or debt enforcement (foreclosure or receivership) proceedings. To determine the present value of the amount recovered by creditors, Doing Business uses the lending rates from the International Monetary Fund, supplemented with data from central banks and the Economist Intelligence Unit. The most recent round of data collection was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

    image

    What the indicators measure

    Case study assumptions

    Time required to recover debt (years)

    • Measured in calendar years

    • Appeals and requests for extension are included

      Cost required to recover debt (% of debtor’s estate)

    • Measured as percentage of estate value

    • Court fees

    • Fees of insolvency administrators

    • Lawyers’ fees

    • Assessors’ and auctioneers’ fees

    • Other related fees

      To make the data on the time, cost and outcome comparable across economies, several assumptions about the business and the case are used:

      • A hotel located in the largest city (or cities) has 201 employees and 50 suppliers. The hotel experiences financial difficulties.

      • The value of the hotel is 100% of the income per capita or the equivalent in local currency of USD 200,000, whichever is greater.

      • The hotel has a loan from a domestic bank, secured by a mortgage over the hotel’s real estate. The hotel cannot pay back the loan, but makes enough money to operate otherwise.

      In addition, Doing Business evaluates the quality of legal framework applicable to judicial liquidation and reorganization proceedings and the extent to which best insolvency practices have been implemented in each economy covered.

      Outcome

    • Whether business continues operating as a going concern or business assets are sold piecemeal

      Recovery rate for creditors

    • Measures the cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors

    • Outcome for the business (survival or not) determines the maximum value that can be recovered

    • Official costs of the insolvency proceedings are deducted

    • Depreciation of furniture is taken into account

    • Present value of debt recovered

      Strength of insolvency framework index (0- 16)

    • Sum of the scores of four component indices:

    • Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)

    • Management of debtor’s assets index (0-6)

    • Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)

    • Creditor participation index (0-4)

    image

    Indicator

    Ireland

    OECD high income

    Best Regulatory Performance

    Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)

    86.1

    70.2

    92.9 (Norway)

    Resolving Insolvency – Ireland

    image

    Cost (% of estate)

    9.0

    9.3

    1.0 (Norway)

    Time (years) 0.4 1.7 0.4 (Ireland)

    image

    Figure – Resolving Insolvency in Ireland – Score

    image

    Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)

    10.5

    11.9

    None in 2018/19

    Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 1 .. ..

    image

    92.7

    image

    65.6

    Recovery rate Strength of insolvency framework index

    Figure – Resolving Insolvency in Ireland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

    DB 2020 Resolving Insolvency Score

    image

    0 100

    89.8: Germany (Rank: 4)

    81.0: Canada (Rank: 13)

    80.3: United Kingdom (Rank: 14)

    79.2: Ireland (Rank: 19)

    74.9: Regional Average (OECD high income)

    74.6: France (Rank: 26)

    Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of resolving insolvency is determined by sorting their scores for resolving insolvency. These scores are the simple average of the scores for the recovery rate and the strength of insolvency framework index.

    Figure – Resolving Insolvency in Ireland – Time and Cost

    2

    Time (years)

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    Time (years) Cost (% of estate)

    image

    1.9

    9.0

    9.0

    9.3

    8.0

    1.7

    7.0

    1.2

    6.0

    1.0

    0.8

    0.4

    image

    image

    10

    Cost (% of estate)

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    Canada France Germany Ireland OECD

    high income

    0

    United Kingdom

    Figure – Resolving Insolvency in Ireland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

    Ireland

    Canada

    France

    Germany

    United Kingdom

    OECD high income

    image

    image

    5

    3

    1

    1.5

    4.5

    2.5

    3

    1

    6

    3

    1

    1

    6

    3

    3

    3

    5

    3

    2

    1

    5.3

    2.8

    2.1

    1.9

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

    Sub-Indicator Score

    image

    image

    image

    image

    Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) Creditor participation index (0-4) Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)

    Note: Even if the economy’s legal framework includes provisions related to insolvency proceedings (liquidation or reorganization), the economy receives 0 points for the strength of insolvency framework index, if time, cost and outcome indicators are recorded as “no practice.”

    Figure – Resolving Insolvency in Ireland and comparator economies – Recovery Rate

    image

    86.1

    86.7

    85.4

    79.8

    74.8

    70.2

    Recovery rate(cents on the dollar)

    90

    85

    80

    75

    70

    65

    60

    Ireland Canada France Germany United Kingdom OECD high income

    Details – Resolving Insolvency in Ireland

    image

    Indicator

    Answer

    Score

    Proceeding

    reorganization

    Mirage management will file a petition for judicial protection and appointment of the examiner. The examiner will then propose a scheme of arrangement in order to preserve the company as a going concern. This scheme has to be adopted by at least one class of creditors. If BizBank votes against the scheme of arrangement, it can still be adopted,

    if other creditors vote in support and BizBank is not prejudiced by the arrangement.

    image

    Time (in years)

    0.4

    Mirage's management would file a petition for appointment of an examiner, supported by proof that the company is unable to pay its debts but has a reasonable prospect of survival as a going concern. This position must also be confirmed in a report prepared by an independent accountant, which must be filed together with the petition. From the time of the filing of the petition, the company is under protection of the court and all enforcement actions will be stayed. The court will hear the petition ex parte and appoint a temporary examiner. The court will then schedule a full hearing 7-10 days ahead, which must be advertised to the creditors, so that they can attend. If the court decides to accept the petition, it will also appoint a permanent examiner. The protection period lasts 70 days, but can be extended to 100 days, during which time the examiner must propose a scheme of arrangement, which will be circulated to all creditors. At least one class of creditors must accept the arrangement in order for it to be submitted to the court. The court will hold a confirmation hearing (usually within 2 weeks of when the scheme of arrangement is submitted). If the court approves the scheme of arrangement, it becomes binding on all creditors, even those who did not support it. A scheme of arrangement frequently involves a new investor acquiring all or substantially all of the shareholding in the company

    together with a write down of the company’s debt across a range of classes of creditors.

    Outcome going concern If the scheme of arrangement is accepted, the hotel will continue operating, however, there may be a new owner.

    Cost (% of estate) 9.0 The majority of the expenses are comprised of attorney fees (up to 5%) and fees of the examiner (4%). Other

    image

    Recovery rate

    (cents on the dollar)

    86.1

    expenses include services provided by other professionals such as accountants (0.5%) and court fees (0.2%).

    image

    Details – Resolving Insolvency in Ireland – Measure of Quality

    Answer

    Score

    Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)

    10.5

    Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)

    3.0

    What procedures are available to a DEBTOR when commencing insolvency proceedings?

    (a) Debtor may file for both liquidation and reorganization

    1.0

    Does the insolvency framework allow a CREDITOR to file for insolvency of the debtor?

    (a) Yes, a creditor may file for both liquidation and reorganization

    1.0

    What basis for commencement of the insolvency proceedings is allowed under the insolvency framework? (a) Debtor is generally unable to pay its debts as they mature (b) The value of debtor's liabilities exceeds the value of its assets

    (c) Both (a) and (b) options are available, but only one of them needs to be complied with

    1.0

    Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)

    5.0

    Does the insolvency framework allow the continuation of contracts supplying essential goods and services to the debtor?

    Yes

    1.0

    Does the insolvency framework allow the rejection by the debtor of overly burdensome contracts?

    Yes

    1.0

    Does the insolvency framework allow avoidance of preferential transactions?

    Yes

    1.0

    Does the insolvency framework allow avoidance of undervalued transactions?

    No

    0.0

    Does the insolvency framework provide for the possibility of the debtor obtaining credit after commencement of insolvency proceedings?

    Yes

    1.0

    Does the insolvency framework assign priority to post-commencement credit?

    (b) Yes over ordinary unsecured creditors but not over secured creditors

    1.0

    Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)

    1.5

    Which creditors vote on the proposed reorganization plan?

    (a) All creditors

    0.5

    Does the insolvency framework require that dissenting creditors in reorganization receive at least as much as what they would obtain in a liquidation?

    No

    0.0

    Are the creditors divided into classes for the purposes of voting on the reorganization plan, does each class vote separately and are creditors in the same class treated equally?

    Yes

    1.0

    Creditor participation index (0-4)

    1.0

    Does the insolvency framework require approval by the creditors for selection or appointment of the insolvency representative?

    No

    0.0

    Does the insolvency framework require approval by the creditors for sale of substantial assets of the debtor?

    No

    0.0

    Does the insolvency framework provide that a creditor has the right to request information from the insolvency representative?

    No

    0.0

    Does the insolvency framework provide that a creditor has the right to object to decisions accepting or rejecting creditors' claims?

    Yes

    1.0

    Note: Even if the economy’s legal framework includes provisions related to insolvency proceedings (liquidation or reorganization), the economy receives 0 points for the strength of insolvency framework index, if time, cost and outcome indicators are recorded as “no practice.”

    image Employing Workers

    Doing Business presents detailed data for the employing workers indicators on the Doing Business website (http://www.doingbusiness.org). The study does not present rankings of economies on these indicators or include the topic in the aggregate ease of doing business score or ranking on the ease of doing business.

    The most recent round of data collection was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

    image

    What the indicators measure

    Case study assumptions

    Hiring

    (i) whether fixed-term contracts are prohibited for permanent tasks; (ii) maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts;

    (iii) length of the maximum probationary period; (iv) minimum wage;(v) ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker.

    Working hours

    (i) maximum number of working days allowed per week; (ii) premiums for work: at night, on a weekly rest day and overtime;

    (iii) whether there are restrictions on work at night, work on a weekly rest day and for overtime work; (iv) length of paid annual leave.

    Redundancy rules

    (i) whether redundancy can be basis for terminating workers; (ii) whether employer needs to notify and/or get approval from third party to terminate 1 redundant worker and a group of 9 redundant workers; (iii) whether the law requires employer to reassign or retrain a worker before making worker redundant; (iv) whether priority rules apply for redundancies and reemployment.

    To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the worker and the business are used.

    The worker:

    • Is a cashier in a supermarket or grocery store, age 19, with one year of work experience.

    • Is a full-time employee.

    • Is not a member of the labor union, unless membership is mandatory.

      The business:

    • Is a limited liability company (or the equivalent in the economy).

    • Operates a supermarket or grocery store in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

    • Has 60 employees.

    • Is subject to collective bargaining agreements if such agreements cover more than 50% of the food retail sector and they apply even to firms that are not party to them.

    • Abides by every law and regulation but does not grant workers more benefits than those mandated by law, regulation or (if applicable) collective bargaining agreements.

    Redundancy cost

    (i) notice period for redundancy dismissal; (ii) severance payments, and (iii) penalties due when terminating a redundant worker. Data on the availability of unemployment protection for a worker with one year of employment is also collected.

    Employing Workers – Ireland

    Details – Employing Workers in Ireland

    Answer

    Hiring

    Fixed-term contracts prohibited for permanent tasks? No

    Maximum length of a single fixed-term contract (months) No limit

    Maximum length of fixed-term contracts, including renewals (months) No limit

    Minimum wage applicable to the worker assumed in the case study (US$/month) 1933.8

    Maximum length of probationary period (months) 12.0

    Ratio of minimum wage to value added per worker 0.3

    Working hours

    Standard workday 8.0

    Maximum number of working days per week 6.0

    Premium for night work (% of hourly pay) 0.0

    Premium for work on weekly rest day (% of hourly pay) 0.0

    Premium for overtime work (% of hourly pay) 0.0

    Restrictions on night work? No

    Restrictions on weekly holiday? No

    Restrictions on overtime work? No

    Paid annual leave for a worker with 1 year of tenure (working days) 20.0

    Paid annual leave for a worker with 5 years of tenure (working days) 20.0

    Paid annual leave for a worker with 10 years of tenure (working days) 20.0

    Paid annual leave (average for workers with 1, 5 and 10 years of tenure, in working days) 20.0

    Redundancy rules

    Dismissal due to redundancy allowed by law? Yes

    Third-party notification if one worker is dismissed? No

    Third-party approval if one worker is dismissed? No

    Third-party notification if nine workers are dismissed? Yes

    Third-party approval if nine workers are dismissed? No

    Retraining or reassignment obligation before redundancy? No

    Priority rules for redundancies? No

    Priority rules for reemployment? No

    Redundancy cost

    Notice period for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 1 year of tenure (weeks of salary) 1.0

    Notice period for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 5 years of tenure (weeks of salary) 4.0

    Notice period for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 10 years of tenure (weeks of salary) 6.0

    Severance pay for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 1 year of tenure (weeks of salary) 0.0

    Notice period for redundancy dismissal (average for workers with 1, 5 and 10 years of tenure, in weeks of salary) 3.7

    Severance pay for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 5 years of tenure (weeks of salary) 11.0

    Page 65

    Severance pay for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 10 years of tenure (weeks of salary) 21.0

    Unemployment protection after one year of employment? No

    Severance pay for redundancy dismissal (average for workers with 1, 5 and 10 years of tenure, in weeks of salary) 10.7

    PEO Ireland

    Ireland, as a Professional Employer Organization (PEO) country, presents an enticing landscape for businesses seeking to establish a foothold in Europe. Renowned for its pro-business policies, favorable tax regime, and strategic access to the European Union’s market, Ireland has become a top choice for companies looking to expand internationally. Its stable political climate and well-established legal system offer a secure environment for businesses to thrive. Additionally, Ireland’s highly skilled and multilingual workforce, coupled with a strong focus on research and development, ensures that businesses can tap into a pool of talent known for its adaptability and innovation. PEO services in Ireland provide invaluable assistance in navigating the country’s complex employment regulations, managing payroll, and handling HR functions, making it easier for foreign companies to seamlessly integrate into the Irish market and capitalize on the myriad opportunities it has to offer.

    PEO services in Ireland offer a comprehensive and efficient solution for foreign companies looking to expand their operations into the Irish market. By partnering with a reputable PEO service provider, international businesses can delegate human resources, payroll, and compliance tasks to local experts. The PEO acts as the official employer of record, ensuring compliance with Irish labor laws and regulations, and streamlining the entry process for foreign companies. This enables businesses to establish a presence in Ireland without the need for setting up a legal entity, saving time and resources. PEO services also provide access to a skilled local workforce, fostering seamless integration into the Irish business landscape. With administrative burdens taken care of, foreign companies can focus on their core business objectives, capitalize on Ireland’s favorable business environment, and thrive in this dynamic European market.

    Business Reforms in Ireland

    From May 2, 2018 to May 1, 2019, 115 economies implemented 294 business regulatory reforms across the 10 areas measured by Doing Business. Reforms inspired by

    Doing Business have been implemented by economies in all regions. The following are reforms implemented since Doing Business 2008.

    =Doing Business reform making it easier to do business. = Change making it more difficult to do business.

    DB2019

    Registering Property: Ireland made property registration more costly by increasing the stamp duty on a non-residential property transfer.

    Getting Credit: Ireland improved access to credit information by establishing a new credit registry.

    Enforcing Contracts: Ireland made enforcing contracts easier by introducing a consolidated law on voluntary mediation.

    DB2018

    Enforcing Contracts: Ireland made enforcing contracts easier by making performance measurement reports publicly available to show the court’s performance and the progress of cases through the court.

    DB2017

    Starting a Business: Ireland made starting a business easier by removing the requirement that a founder seeking to incorporate a company swear before a commissioner of oaths.

    DB2016

    Protecting Minority Investors: Ireland strengthened minority investor protections by introducing provisions stipulating that directors can be held liable for breach of their fiduciary duties.

    Paying Taxes: Ireland made paying taxes more costly and complicated for companies by increasing landfill levies and by requiring additional financial statements to be submitted with the income tax return.

    DB2015

    Registering Property: Ireland made transferring property easier by enhancing its computerized system at the land registry and implementing an online system for the registration of title.

    Getting Credit: Ireland improved its credit information system by passing a new act that provides for the establishment and operation of a credit registry.

    Enforcing Contracts: Ireland made enforcing contracts easier by modifying the monetary jurisdictions of its courts.

    DB2014

    Employing Workers: Ireland ended a 60% rebate for employers on severance payments and eliminated the requirement for third-party notification when terminating a redundant worker.

    DB2013

    Starting a Business: Ireland made starting a business easier by introducing a new online facility for business registration.

    Registering Property: Ireland made property transfers less costly by introducing a single stamp duty rate for transfers of nonresidential property. It also extended compulsory registration to all property in Ireland.

    DB2010

    Registering Property: Ireland made registering property easier by reducing the maximum chargeable stamp duty for property transactions.

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