Economy Profile Finland

Ease of Doing Business in Finland

ease of doing business in finland

Rankings on Doing Business topics – Finland

image

Topic Scores

image

Starting a Business

This topic measures the number of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirement for a small- to medium-sized limited liability company to start up and formally operate in each economy’s largest business city.

To make the data comparable across 190 economies, Doing Business uses a standardized business that is 100% domestically owned, has start-up capital equivalent to 10 times the income per capita, engages in general industrial or commercial activities and employs between 10 and 50 people one month after the commencement of operations, all of whom are domestic nationals. Starting a Business considers two types of local limited liability companies that are identical in all aspects, except that one company is owned by 5 married women and the other by 5 married men. The ranking of economies on the ease of starting a business is determined by sorting their scores for starting a business. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

Procedures to legally start and formally operate a company (number)

  • Preregistration (for example, name verification or reservation, notarization)

  • Registration in the economy’s largest business city

  • Postregistration (for example, social security registration, company seal)

  • Obtaining approval from spouse to start a business or to leave the home to register the company

  • Obtaining any gender specific document for company registration and operation or national identification card

Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days)

  • Does not include time spent gathering information

  • Each procedure starts on a separate day (2 procedures cannot start on the same day)

  • Procedures fully completed online are recorded as ½ day

  • Procedure is considered completed once final document is received

  • No prior contact with officials

Cost required to complete each procedure (% of income per capita)

  • Official costs only, no bribes

  • No professional fees unless services required by law or commonly used in practice

Paid-in minimum capital (% of income per capita)

  • Funds deposited in a bank or with third party before registration or up to 3 months after incorporation

To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the business and the procedures are used. It is assumed that any required information is readily available and that the entrepreneur will pay no bribes.

The business:

-Is a limited liability company (or its legal equivalent). If there is more than one type of limited liability company in the economy, the limited liability form most common among domestic firms is chosen. Information on the most common form is obtained from incorporation lawyers or the statistical office.

-Operates in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

-Performs general industrial or commercial activities such as the production or sale to the public of goods or services. The business does not perform foreign trade activities and does not handle products subject to a special tax regime, for example, liquor or tobacco. It is not using heavily polluting production processes.

-Does not qualify for investment incentives or any special benefits.

-Is 100% domestically owned.

-Has five business owners, none of whom is a legal entity. One business owner holds 30% of the company shares, two owners have 20% of shares each, and two owners have 15% of shares each.

-Is managed by one local director.

-Has between 10 and 50 employees one month after the commencement of operations, all of them domestic nationals.

-Has start-up capital of 10 times income per capita.

-Has an estimated turnover of at least 100 times income per capita.

-Leases the commercial plant or offices and is not a proprietor of real estate.

-Has an annual lease for the office space equivalent to one income per capita.

-Is in an office space of approximately 929 square meters (10,000 square feet).

-Has a company deed that is 10 pages long.

The owners:

-Have reached the legal age of majority and are capable of making decisions as an adult. If there is no legal age of majority, they are assumed to be 30 years old.

-Are in good health and have no criminal record.

-Are married, the marriage is monogamous and registered with the authorities.

-Where the answer differs according to the legal system applicable to the woman or man in question (as may be the case in economies where there is legal plurality), the answer used will be the one that applies to the majority of the population.

Starting a Business – Finland

starting a business finland

Figure – Starting a Business in Finland – Score

figure starting a business in finland score

Figure – Starting a Business in Finland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

figure starting a business in finland and comparator economies ranking and score

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of starting a business is determined by sorting their scores for starting a business. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

Figure – Starting a Business in Finland – Procedure, Time and Cost

figure starting a business in finland Procedure time and cost

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website (http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

Details – Starting a Business in Finland – Procedure, Time and Cost

1 Deposit the paid-in share capital in a bank; pay the registration fee and get a receipt

Agency : Bank

According to the Companies Act, the paid-in share capital must be paid in full into the company's bank account. To open a bank account, the company must provide at least a copy of memorandum of association. Normally also following materials need to be provided to the bank when opening an account:

1 day

no charge

  • The minutes of the meeting of the Board of Directors including a resolution of opening an account and identifying persons authorized to use the bank account to be opened,

  • A brief description of the nature of company's future banking transactions,

  • A description of the company's field of business,

  • Sufficient information regarding the shareholders and the directors of the company,

  • Copies of the passports regarding the persons authorized to use the bank account

The subscription price may be paid to a bank account outside of Finland. However, the bank account should correspond to a bank account of a Finnish depository bank or a branch of a foreign credit institute in Finland.

The receipt of the bank regarding the payment of the share capital is sufficient in order to register the company. However, if an auditor is elected in accordance with applicable law, the auditor shall provide a statement confirming the payment of the share capital.

2 Submit a single start-up notification form to the National Board of Patents and Registration (PRH) and the Tax Administration as well as VAT registration.

Agency : NBPR and the Tax Administration

A basic declaration to the Trade Register must be filed as the National Board of Patents and Registration specifies. For each type of business association, a separate basic declaration form must be used. The forms are available on the National Board of Patents and Registration, regional tax offices, local tax offices, Centers for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment ("ELY" Centers), local register offices, and Chamber of Commerce and Enterprise Agencies. All registrations to the Trade Register and to the Tax Administration are performed with the same basic declaration.

It is possible to file a start-up notification online for EUR 275. In order to be able to use the online system, it is necessary to obtain an ID with the National Board of Patents and Registration of Finland.

If the company has employees, the company must be entered into the Employer Register, according to Section 31 of the Preliminary Taxation Act, which happens at the same time as the registration to the administration. Registration to the Tax administration includes registration for the Value Added Tax.

When the basic declaration is submitted, a certificate of the company's business identification number may be obtained at a fee of EUR 7. This certificate allows companies to use their bank accounts before registration has been completed.

The online registration is possible only when the following conditions are met:

  • The standard Article of Association is sufficient.

  • The shares are paid in euros to the bank account of the company to be established.

  • The subscription price is entered in share capital entirely.

  • All subscribers of shares and the Members of the Board of Directors shall have a Finnish social security number and a personal code for online banking system or an identity card with chip (HST- card). This applies also to possible CEO and a possible auditor who is a natural person.

  • The possible procuration holders and those who are entitled to represent the company have a Finnish social security number.

According to the Finnish Limited Liability Companies Act (624/2006) chapter 2, section 8(1), the company shall be notified for registration within three months of the signing of the Memorandum of Association. If failing this, the incorporation of

the company shall lapse. If the company shall carry on business, farming or any other income deriving activity, it shall be registered in the prepayment register.

8 business days for online registration or 24 business days for paper registration

EUR 275 (online start-up notification of a limited liability company) and EUR 380 (start-up notification in paper form)

3 File at a private insurer for pension insurance, accident insurance, and medical insurance of employees

Agency : Private Insurer

Under the statutory pension insurance scheme, an employer must subscribe its employees for pension insurance with a pension provider handling earnings-related pensions. Supplemental pension insurance is optional.

1 day (simultaneous with no charge

previous procedure)

The employer also pays the pension institution statutory employee earnings-related contributions, such as: accident insurance, unemployment insurance, and group life assurance premium. A social security contribution is also payable to the Regional Tax Office.

The employer must insure its employees against accidents and occupational diseases, according to Section 3 of the Occupational Accidents, Injuries and Diseases Act, which has been in force as of 1 January 2017. In addition, certain collective labor agreements require that employers provide their employees with group life insurance. No proof of insurance is needed to start operations.

The accident insurance is paid to the insurance company and must be obtained before the work for the company starts. The group life insurance is also paid to the insurance company. The group life insurance is compulsory only if the applicable collective labor agreement requires the employer to take the group life insurance. Unemployment insurance is paid to The Unemployment Insurance Fund.

Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

Dealing with Construction Permits

This topic tracks the procedures, time and cost to build a warehouse—including obtaining necessary the licenses and permits, submitting all required notifications, requesting and receiving all necessary inspections and obtaining utility connections. In addition, the Dealing with Construction Permits indicator measures the building quality control index, evaluating the quality of building regulations, the strength of quality control and safety mechanisms, liability and insurance regimes, and professional certification requirements. The most recent round of data collection was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information

What the indicators measure

Procedures to legally build a warehouse (number)

  • Submitting all relevant documents and obtaining all necessary clearances, licenses, permits and certificates

  • Submitting all required notifications and receiving all necessary inspections

  • Obtaining utility connections for water and sewerage

  • Registering and selling the warehouse after its completion

Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days)

  • Does not include time spent gathering information

  • Each procedure starts on a separate day—though procedures that can be fully completed online are an exception to this rule

  • Procedure is considered completed once final document is received

  • No prior contact with officials

Cost required to complete each procedure (% of income per capita)

  • Official costs only, no bribes

Building quality control index (0-15)

  • Quality of building regulations (0-2)

  • Quality control before construction (0-1)

  • Quality control during construction (0-3)

  • Quality control after construction (0-3)

  • Liability and insurance regimes (0-2)

  • Professional certifications (0-4)

To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the construction company, the warehouse project and the utility connections are used.

The construction company (BuildCo):

  • Is a limited liability company (or its legal equivalent) and operates in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

  • Is 100% domestically and privately owned; has five owners, none of whom is a legal entity. Has a licensed architect and a licensed engineer, both registered with the local association of architects or engineers. BuildCo is not assumed to have any other employees who are technical or licensed experts, such as geological or topographical experts.

  • Owns the land on which the warehouse will be built and will sell the warehouse upon its completion.

The warehouse:

  • Will be used for general storage activities, such as storage of books or stationery.

  • Will have two stories, both above ground, with a total constructed area of approximately 1,300.6 square meters (14,000 square feet). Each floor will be 3 meters (9 feet, 10 inches) high and will be located on a land plot of approximately 929 square meters (10,000 square feet) that is 100% owned by BuildCo, and the warehouse is valued at 50 times income per capita.

  • Will have complete architectural and technical plans prepared by a licensed architect. If preparation of the plans requires such steps as obtaining further documentation or getting prior approvals from external agencies, these are counted as procedures.

  • Will take 30 weeks to construct (excluding all delays due to administrative and regulatory requirements).

The water and sewerage connections:

  • Will be 150 meters (492 feet) from the existing water source and sewer tap. If there is no water delivery infrastructure in the economy, a borehole will be dug. If there is no sewerage infrastructure, a septic tank in the smallest size available will be installed or built.

  • Will have an average water use of 662 liters (175 gallons) a day and an average wastewater flow of 568 liters (150 gallons) a day. Will have a peak water use of 1,325 liters (350 gallons) a day and a peak wastewater flow of 1,136 liters (300 gallons) a day.

  • Will have a constant level of water demand and wastewater flow throughout the year; will be 1 inch in diameter for the water connection and 4 inches in diameter for the sewerage connection.

dealing with construction permits finland figure dealing with construction permits in finland score figure dealing with construction permits in finland and comparator economies ranking and score figure dealing with construction permits in finland Procedure time and cost figure dealing with construction permits in finland and comparator economies measure of quality

Dealing with Construction Permits – Finland

dealing with construction permits finland

Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Finland – Score

figure dealing with construction permits in finland score

Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Finland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

DB 2020 Dealing with Construction Permits Score

figure dealing with construction permits in finland and comparator economies ranking and score

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of dealing with construction permits is determined by sorting their scores for dealing with construction permits. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Finland – Procedure, Time and Cost

figure dealing with construction permits in finland Procedure time and cost

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website (http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Finland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

figure dealing with construction permits in finland and comparator economies measure of quality

Details – Dealing with Construction Permits in Finland – Procedure, Time and Cost

1 Obtain building permit maps and extract from the Real Estate Office

Agency : Real Estate Office

The Real Estate Office issues the building permits maps, which must be attached as originals to the application. The applicant cannot use a map that is older than 3 months. The fee also includes the extract from the Real Estate Register and the report of the build-site height.

2 Obtain official opinion on the connection of the wastewater drain and water pipeline

Agency : HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, HSY Water

The official opinion on the connection of the wastewater drain and the water pipeline must be attached to the building permit application if the building will be connected to the public water distribution system and to the public sewerage system. The opinion is issued by the municipal organization in charge of the water supply (in the greater Helsinki area, Helsinki Water). The cost is included in the connection charge.

12 days EUR 235

7 days no charge

3 Schedule start-up meeting

Agency : Building Supervision Authority

BuildCo must set a date for a startup meeting with the building supervision authority and convene all necessary persons to the meeting. The meeting must be held before the beginning of construction (some excavation work can be done, but the foundation may not be laid before the meeting). At a minimum, the following persons should attend the meeting: the person starting the building project, the head designer, and the site manager. The meeting attendees must be agreed with the building supervision authority.

4 Obtain extract from the Trade Register

Agency : Trade Register

This procedure is usually required when the building permit applicant is a company (which is the case in the Doing Business case study). The procedure is done online through an e-form.

7 days no charge

0.5 days EUR 3

5 Notify the neighbors of the building permit application

Agency : Owners and titleholders of surrounding properties

According to Section 133 of the Land Use and Building Act, neighbours shall be notified when an application for a building permit is submitted, unless notification is clearly not necessary with regard to the neighbours' interest, due to the smallness or location of the project, or to the contents of the plan. 'Neighbour' refers to owners and other titleholders of adjacent or opposite properties. The fact that the application has been submitted shall at the same time be publicized on the building site by suitable means.

When needed, a review shall be conducted on the building site in order to assess how the building fits in with the surroundings and the impact of construction, and in order to hear the neighbours.

The applicant and the titleholders of the neighbouring properties shall be notified of the time and date of the review.

6 Obtain report on the height of the intended construction

Agency : Real Estate Office

This report can be obtained any time online from http://kartta.hel.fi/ . The report is required to ensure that the height of the new building is in proportion with other buildings in the same neighborhood. The statutory zoning map/local detailed plan is the only document stating the allowed building height.

1 day no charge

0.5 days no charge

Details – Dealing with Construction Permits in Finland – Measure of Quality

details dealing with construction permits in finland measure of quality

Getting Electricity

This topic measures the procedures, time and cost required for a business to obtain a permanent electricity connection for a newly constructed warehouse. Additionally, the reliability of supply and transparency of tariffs index measures reliability of supply, transparency of tariffs and the price of electricity. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

Procedures to obtain an electricity connection (number)

  • Submitting all relevant documents and obtaining all necessary clearances and permits

  • Completing all required notifications and receiving all necessary inspections

  • Obtaining external installation works and possibly purchasing material for these works

  • Concluding any necessary supply contract and obtaining final supply

Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days)

  • Is at least 1 calendar day

  • Each procedure starts on a separate day

  • Does not include time spent gathering information

  • Reflects the time spent in practice, with little follow-up and no prior contact with officials

Cost required to complete each procedure (% of income per capita)

  • Official costs only, no bribes

  • Value added tax excluded

The reliability of supply and transparency of tariffs index (0-8)

  • Duration and frequency of power outages (0–3)

  • Tools to monitor power outages (0–1)

  • Tools to restore power supply (0–1)

  • Regulatory monitoring of utilities’ performance (0–1)

  • Financial deterrents limiting outages (0–1)

  • Transparency and accessibility of tariffs (0–1)

To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the warehouse, the electricity connection and the monthly consumption are used.

The warehouse:

  • Is owned by a local entrepreneur and is used for storage of goods.

  • Is located in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

  • Is located in an area where similar warehouses are typically located and is in an area with no physical constraints. For example, the property is not near a railway.

  • Is a new construction and is being connected to electricity for the first time.

  • Has two stories with a total surface area of approximately 1,300.6 square meters (14,000 square feet). The plot of land on which it is built is 929 square meters (10,000 square feet).

The electricity connection:

  • Is a permanent one with a three-phase, four-wire Y connection with a subscribed capacity of 140- kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) with a power factor of 1, when 1 kVA = 1 kilowatt (kW).

  • Has a length of 150 meters. The connection is to either the low- or medium-voltage distribution network and is either overhead or underground, whichever is more common in the area where the warehouse is located and requires works that involve the crossing of a 10-meter road (such as by excavation or overhead lines) but are all carried out on public land. There is no crossing of other owners’ private property because the warehouse has access to a road.

  • Does not require work to install the internal wiring of the warehouse. This has already been completed up to and including the customer’s service panel or switchboard and the meter base.

The monthly consumption:

  • It is assumed that the warehouse operates 30 days a month from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (8 hours a day), with equipment utilized at 80% of capacity on average and that there are no electricity cuts (assumed for simplicity reasons) and the monthly energy consumption is 26,880 kilowatt-hours (kWh); hourly consumption is 112 kWh.

  • If multiple electricity suppliers exist, the warehouse is served by the cheapest supplier.

  • Tariffs effective in January of the current year are used for calculation of the price of electricity for the warehouse. Although January has 31 days, for calculation purposes only 30 days are used.

Price of electricity (cents per kilowatt-hour)*

Price based on monthly bill for commercial warehouse in case study

*Note: Doing Business measures the price of electricity, but it is not included in the ease of doing business score nor in the ranking on the ease of getting electricity.

Getting Electricity – Finland

getting electricity finland

Figure – Getting Electricity in Finland – Score

figure getting electricity in finland score

Figure – Getting Electricity in Finland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

DB 2020 Getting Electricity Score

figure getting electricity in finland and comparator economies ranking and score

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of getting electricity is determined by sorting their scores for getting electricity. These scores are the simple average of the scores for all the component indicators except the price of electricity.

Figure – Getting Electricity in Finland – Procedure, Time and Cost

figure getting electricity in finland procedure time and cost

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website (http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology). For details on the procedures

reflected here, see the summary below.

Figure – Getting Electricity in Finland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

figure getting electricity in finland and comparator economies measure of quality

Details – Getting Electricity in Finland – Procedure, Time and Cost

1 Submit application and certification from electrician to Helen Electricity Network

Agency : Helen Electricity Network

The application for a new connection can be submitted through an online form (i.e. to obtain the contract for getting connected to the distribution grid) or in person at Helen’s customer service point. If submitted online, the customer can choose to provide the required documents either directly online, or send them via email/regular mail. The required documents include the blueprints of the buildings internal wiring, which have to be approved by the utility before the building is connected to the grid.

1 calendar day EUR 0

2 Purchase material and carry out external works

Agency : Helen Electricity Network

The customer needs to purchase and install the connection cable from the building to the perimeter wall, since the utility does only the external connection works, and everything inside the boundary wall of the building is the customer’s responsibility. The meter is installed only after the connection cable is installed.

3 calendar days EUR 3,000

3 Submit electrician's statement on internal wiring and receive external works from Helen Electricity Network

Agency : Helen Electricity Network

The customer's electrician submits a document where he states that all the wiring has been done according to the rules and regulations. The person in charge of the wiring has to be a certified electrician and have the licenses that are required to do inspections. The electrician does not have to be registered with the utility company and there is no verification whether they are certified or not.

30 calendar days EUR 8,411.29

4 Sign supply contract with retailer

Agency : Helen Electricity Network

The customer has a choice of retailers for electricity supply. In the case of most retailers, the application is done online, and no paperwork needs to submit.

1 calendar day EUR 0

5 Request and receive meter installation and electricity flow

Agency : Helen Electricity Network

The meter is installed when the customer’s electrician informs the utility that it can be installed (not at the same time as the connection). The installation is done by Empower Oy. The customer does not need to contact this company separately, it is taken care of by the utility. Electricity starts flowing once the meter is installed, and once Empower Oy has informed the utility that the meter has been installed.

Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

7 calendar days EUR 200

Details – Getting Electricity in Finland – Measure of Quality

detail getting electricity in finland measure of quality

Note:

If the duration and frequency of outages is 100 or less, the economy is eligible to score on the Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index. If the duration and frequency of outages is not available, or is over 100, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

If the minimum outage time considered for SAIDI/SAIFI is over 5 minutes, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

Registering Property

This topic examines the steps, time and cost involved in registering property, assuming a standardized case of an entrepreneur who wants to purchase land and a building that is already registered and free of title dispute. In addition, the topic also measures the quality of the land administration system in each economy. The quality of land administration index has five dimensions: reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution, and equal access to property rights. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

Procedures to legally transfer title on immovable property (number)

  • Preregistration procedures (for example, checking for liens, notarizing sales agreement, paying property transfer taxes)

  • Registration procedures in the economy's largest business city.

  • Postregistration procedures (for example, filling title with municipality)

Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days)

  • Does not include time spent gathering information

  • Each procedure starts on a separate day – though procedures that can be fully completed online are an exception to this rule

  • Procedure is considered completed once final document is received

  • No prior contact with officials

Cost required to complete each procedure (% of property value)

  • Official costs only (such as administrative fees, duties and taxes).

  • Value Added Tax, Capital Gains Tax and illicit payments are excluded

Quality of land administration index (0-30)

  • Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)

  • Transparency of information index (0–6)

  • Geographic coverage index (0–8)

  • Land dispute resolution index (0–8)

  • Equal access to property rights index (-2–0)

To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the parties to the transaction, the property and the procedures are used.

The parties (buyer and seller):

  • Are limited liability companies (or the legal equivalent).

  • Are located in the periurban (that is, on the outskirts of the city but still within its official limits) area of the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

  • Are 100% domestically and privately owned.

  • Perform general commercial activities.

The property (fully owned by the seller):

  • Has a value of 50 times income per capita, which equals the sale price.

  • Is fully owned by the seller.

  • Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years.

  • Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes.

  • Is located in a periurban commercial zone (that is, on the outskirts of the city but still within its official limits), and no rezoning is required.

  • Consists of land and a building. The land area is 557.4 square meters (6,000 square feet). A two- story warehouse of 929 square meters (10,000 square feet) is located on the land. The warehouse is 10 years old, is in good condition, has no heating system and complies with all safety standards, building codes and legal requirements. The property, consisting of land and building, will be transferred in its entirety.

  • Will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase.

  • Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind.

  • Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits, such as for residential use, industrial plants, waste storage or certain types of agricultural activities, are required.

  • Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it.

Registering Property – Finland

registering property finland

Figure – Registering Property in Finland – Score

figure registering property in finland score

Figure – Registering Property in Finland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

DB 2020 Registering Property Score

figure registering property in finland and comparator economies ranking and score

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of registering property is determined by sorting their scores for registering property. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

Figure – Registering Property in Finland – Procedure, Time and Cost

figure registering property in finland procedure time and cost

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website (http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

Figure – Registering Property in Finland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

figure registering property in finland and comparator economies measure of quality

Details – Registering Property in Finland – Procedure, Time and Cost

1 The seller and buyer notarize the deed of sale with an attesting notary or prepare the agreement through E-Conveyancing

Agency : Attesting notary / purchasing witness or online through e-conveyance system

The seller or the buyer can prepare the sale agreement, no involvement of a lawyer or real estate agent is required by law. In general, the seller presents an extract from the Land Registry and extracts from the Title and Mortgage Registries demonstrating ownership and any registered encumbrances, but these are not formally required.

1 day

EUR 120; (120 (55 € when

using the E-conveyance))

The agreement must be in writing and contain at a minimum the following information (according to the Code of Real Estate 540/1995, as amended): name of the seller and buyer, the object of purchase (including real estate number), the purchase price or equivalent compensation and possible subsequent conditions. The agreement must also contain the purpose of transfer.

The sale agreement shall be signed both by the seller and buyer, in the presence of the attesting notary. The attesting notary checks the ID of the seller and buyer and verifies the formal validity of the sales agreement. Failure to follow these requirements will result in the transaction being automatically null and void. Note that an attesting notary is required only when ownership (freehold title) of the real estate is assigned. When the right of tenancy (leasehold) or other rights to possess the property is assigned, the presence of the attesting notary is not required. The attesting notary must inform the National Land Survey of Finland of the transaction, and the buyer must apply for the registration of its title at their offices (see Procedure 3).

In November 2013 National Land Survey Finland introduced the E-Conveyancing system. When seller and buyer use the new E-Conveyancing system, no notary is needed to conduct the transaction which can be done online. Both parties must have a strong authentication to log in the system. As of February 2019, most transactions are still conducted following the traditional process.

2 The buyer pays the transfer tax

Agency : Local Bank, Tax Authority or online banking

The transfer tax must be paid to the Finnish Tax Administration within six (6) months of the date of the transfer/purchase agreement. In practice, payment of transfer tax is a prerequisite for the registration of title and, accordingly, transfer tax will become immediately due and payable upon application for registration of title. As the application for registration of title is automatically filed upon completion of the transfer if the e-conveyancing system referred to under Procedure 1 is used, in such case transfer tax will also become immediately due and payable. However, since as of February 2019 the E-conveyancing System is not widely used, the most common practice in Helsinki for paying the transfer tax to the Finnish Tax Administration is online banking.

If the buyer fails to pay the necessary transfer tax within six (6) months of the date of the transfer/purchase agreement, the Finnish Tax Administration may impose a higher transfer tax (20% for each additional month). If the buyer has a delay in the payment of the transfer tax and pays it after the registration of the title, a surtax will be applied (7%). The surtax is calculated from the first day of the delay until the payment date.

Less than one day, online

EUR 84,404.33; (4% of the

property value)

3 The buyer applies for title registration with National Land Survey of Finland

Agency : National Land Survey of Finland

The buyer shall register its title to the property in question with the Title and Mortgage Register within 6 months of the date of the purchase agreement. If the buyer fails to do so within 6 months, he will not lose its right to register its title (although the amount of transfer tax payable will increase, please see Procedure 2 above). Further, the transfer of property will not become opposable against third parties until the buyer's title thereto is registered. The application for registration of title may only be delivered: (i) by mail to Maanmittauslaitos / Kirjaamisasiat, PL 3300, 65101 Vaasa, Finland; (ii) by email to kirjaamisasiat@maanmittauslaitos.fi; or (iii) in person to any office of the National Land Survey of Finland.

The National Land Survey of Finland reviews the preconditions for transfer of title and provided that they are met and the transfer tax has been paid (see Procedure 2 above), registers title to the property in question in the buyer's name. Provided that the parties are using the e-conveyancing system, the application for registration of title will automatically be filed simultaneously with the signing of the purchase agreement. The transfer of property will not become opposable against third parties until the buyer's title thereto is registered

The application for registration of title shall include: (i) Evidence of payment of the purchase price if such payment is a precondition for transfer of ownership; (ii) Evidence of payment of transfer tax (as described under Procedure 2 above); (iii) minutes of the board meeting of each of the seller and buyer resolving on the respective sale and purchase of the property. The registration fee can be paid at a bank or online based on an invoice sent by the National Land Survey of Finland post registration.

If the property in question exceeds 5,000 m2 in size (or in the cities of Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen or Vantaa, exceeds 3,000 m2 in size), under the Pre-Emption Act (608/1977, as amended), the municipality may have a pre-emption right in respect of the property. If the municipality decides to use its pre-emption right, it shall notify the buyer, seller and the National Land Survey of Finland of its decision to do so within three months of the original sale transaction. The owner of the property may, however, request that the municipality confirms in advance that the right of pre-emption will not be used. The buyer's title to the property may only be registered after the three-month deadline unless the municipality gives advance notice that it will not use the pre-emption right.

Based on the case study assumptions, the pre-emption right will not be triggered by the transaction

Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

60 days EUR 119

Details – Registering Property in Finland – Measure of Quality

details registering property in finland measure of quality details registering property in finland measure of quality details registering property in finland measure of quality details registering property in finland measure of quality details registering property in finland measure of quality

Getting Credit

This topic explores two sets of issues—the strength of credit reporting systems and the effectiveness of collateral and bankruptcy laws in facilitating lending. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

Strength of legal rights index (0–12)

  • Rights of borrowers and lenders through collateral laws (0-10)

  • Protection of secured creditors’ rights through bankruptcy laws (0-2)

Depth of credit information index (0–8)

  • Scope and accessibility of credit information distributed by credit bureaus and credit registries (0-8)

Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)

  • Number of individuals and firms listed in largest credit bureau as a percentage of adult population

Credit registry coverage (% of adults)

  • Number of individuals and firms listed in credit registry as a percentage of adult population

Doing Business assesses the sharing of credit information and the legal rights of borrowers and lenders with respect to secured transactions through 2 sets of indicators. The depth of credit information index measures rules and practices affecting the coverage, scope and accessibility of credit information available through a credit registry or a credit bureau. The strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. For each economy it is first determined whether a unitary secured transactions system exists. Then two case scenarios, case A and case B, are used to determine how a nonpossessory security interest is created, publicized and enforced according to the law. Special emphasis is given to how the collateral registry operates (if registration of security interests is possible). The case scenarios involve a secured borrower, company ABC, and a secured lender, BizBank.

In some economies the legal framework for secured transactions will allow only case A or case B (not both) to apply. Both cases examine the same set of legal provisions relating to the use of movable collateral.

Several assumptions about the secured borrower (ABC) and lender (BizBank) are used:

  • ABC is a domestic limited liability company (or its legal equivalent).

  • ABC has up to 50 employees.

  • ABC has its headquarters and only base of operations in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

  • Both ABC and BizBank are 100% domestically owned.

The case scenarios also involve assumptions. In case A, as collateral for the loan, ABC grants BizBank a nonpossessory security interest in one category of movable assets, for example, its machinery or its inventory. ABC wants to keep both possession and ownership of the collateral. In economies where the law does not allow nonpossessory security interests in movable property, ABC and BizBank use a fiduciary transfer-of-title arrangement (or a similar substitute for nonpossessory security interests).

In case B, ABC grants BizBank a business charge, enterprise charge, floating charge or any charge that gives BizBank a security interest over ABC’s combined movable assets (or as much of ABC’s movable assets as possible). ABC keeps ownership and possession of the assets.

Getting Credit – Finland

getting credit finland

Figure – Getting Credit in Finland – Score

figure getting credit in finland score

Figure – Getting Credit in Finland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

DB 2020 Getting Credit Score

figure getting credit in finland and comparator economies ranking and score

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of getting credit is determined by sorting their scores for getting credit. These scores are the sum of the scores for the strength of legal rights index and the depth of credit information index.

Figure – Legal Rights in Finland and comparator economies

figure legal rights in finland and comparator economies

Details – Legal Rights in Finland

details legal rights in finland

Figure – Credit Information in Finland and comparator economies

figure credit information in finland and comparator economies

Details – Credit Information in Finland

details credit information in finland

Note: An economy receives a score of 1 if there is a "yes" to either bureau or registry. If the credit bureau or registry is not operational or covers less than 5% of the adult population, the total score on the depth of credit information index is 0.

details credit information in finland coverage

Protecting Minority Investors

This topic measures the strength of minority shareholder protections against misuse of corporate assets by directors for their personal gain as well as shareholder rights, governance safeguards and corporate transparency requirements that reduce the risk of abuse. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

  • Extent of disclosure index (0–10): Disclosure, review, and approval requirements for related-party transactions

  • Extent of director liability index (0–10): Ability of minority shareholders to sue and hold interested directors liable for prejudicial related-party transactions; Available legal remedies (damages, disgorgement of profits, disqualification

    from managerial position(s) for one year or more, rescission of the transaction)

  • Ease of shareholder suits index (0–10): Access to internal corporate documents; Evidence obtainable during trial and allocation of legal expenses

  • Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-30): Sum of the extent of disclosure, extent of director liability and ease of shareholder suits indices

  • Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6): Shareholders’ rights and role in major corporate decisions

  • Extent of ownership and control index (0-7): Governance safeguards protecting shareholders from undue board control and entrenchment

  • Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7): Corporate transparency on ownership stakes, compensation, audits and financial prospects

  • Extent of shareholder governance index (0–20): Sum of the extent of shareholders rights, extent of ownership and control and extent of corporate transparency indices

  • Strength of minority investor protection index (0–50): Sum of the extent of conflict of interest regulation and extent of shareholder governance indices

To make the data comparable across economies, a case study uses several assumptions about the business and the transaction.

The business (Buyer):

  • Is a publicly traded corporation listed on the economy’s most important stock exchange.

  • Has a board of directors and a chief executive officer (CEO) who may legally act on behalf of Buyer where permitted, even if this is not specifically required by law.

  • Has a supervisory board in economies with a two-tier board system on which Mr. James appointed 60% of the shareholder-elected members.

  • Has not adopted bylaws or articles of association that go beyond the minimum requirements. Does not follow codes, principles, recommendations or guidelines that are not mandatory.

  • Is a manufacturing company with its own distribution network.

    The transaction involves the following details:

  • Mr. James owns 60% of Buyer, sits on Buyer’s board of directors and elected two directors to Buyer’s five-member board.

  • Mr. James also owns 90% of Seller, a company that operates a chain of retail hardware stores. Seller recently closed a large number of its stores.

  • Mr. James proposes that Buyer purchase Seller’s unused fleet of trucks to expand Buyer’s distribution of its food products, a proposal to which Buyer agrees. The price is equal to 10% of Buyer’s assets and is higher than the market value.

  • The proposed transaction is part of the company’s principal activity and is not outside the authority of the company.

  • Buyer enters into the transaction. All required approvals are obtained, and all required disclosures made—that is, the transaction was not entered into fraudulently.

  • The transaction causes damages to Buyer. Shareholders sue Mr. James and the executives and directors that approved the transaction.

Protecting Minority Investors – Finland

protecting minority investors finland

Figure – Protecting Minority in Finland – Score

figure protecting minority in finland score

Figure – Protecting Minority Investors in Finland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

DB 2020 Protecting Minority Investors Score

figure protecting minority investors in finland and comparator economies ranking and score

Note: The ranking of economies on the strength of minority investor protections is determined by sorting their scores for protecting minority investors. These scores are the simple average of the scores for the extent of conflict of interest regulation index and the extent of shareholder governance index.

Figure – Protecting Minority Investors in Finland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

figure protecting minority investors in finland and comparator economies measure of quality

Details – Protecting Minority Investors in Finland – Measure of Quality

details protecting minority investors in finland measure of quality details protecting minority investors in finland measure of quality details protecting minority investors in finland measure of quality

Paying Taxes

This topic records the taxes and mandatory contributions that a medium-size company must pay or withhold in a given year, as well as the administrative burden of paying taxes and contributions and complying with postfiling procedures (VAT refund and tax audit). The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019 covering for the Paying Taxes indicator calendar year 2018 (January 1, 2018 – December 31, 2018). See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

Tax payments for a manufacturing company in 2018 (number per year adjusted for electronic and joint filing and payment)

  • Total number of taxes and contributions paid or withheld, including consumption taxes (value added tax, sales tax or goods and service tax)

  • Method and frequency of filing and payment

Time required to comply with 3 major taxes (hours per year)

  • Collecting information, computing tax payable

  • Preparing separate tax accounting books, if required

  • Completing tax return, filing with agencies

  • Arranging payment or withholding

Total tax and contribution rate (% of commercial profits)

  • Profit or corporate income tax

  • Social contributions, labor taxes paid by employer

  • Property and property transfer taxes

  • Dividend, capital gains, financial transactions taxes

  • Waste collection, vehicle, road and other taxes

Postfiling Index

  • Time to comply with VAT refund (hours)

  • Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks)

  • Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours)

  • Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks)

Using a case scenario, Doing Business records taxes and mandatory contributions a medium size company must pay in a year, and measures the administrative burden of paying taxes, contributions and dealing with postfiling processes. Information is also compiled on frequency of filing and payments, time taken to comply with tax laws, time taken to comply with the requirements of postfiling processes and time waiting.

To make data comparable across economies, several assumptions are used:

  • TaxpayerCo is a medium-size business that started operations on January 1, 2017. It produces ceramic flowerpots and sells them at retail. All taxes and contributions recorded are paid in the second year of operation (calendar year 2018). Taxes and mandatory contributions are measured at all levels of government.

The VAT refund process:

  • In June 2018, TaxpayerCo. makes a large capital purchase: the value of the machine is 65 times income per capita of the economy. Sales are equally spread per month (1,050 times income per capita divided by 12) and cost of goods sold are equally expensed per month (875 times income per capita divided by 12). The machinery seller is registered for VAT and excess input VAT incurred in June will be fully recovered after four consecutive months if the VAT rate is the same for inputs, sales and the machine and the tax reporting period is every month. Input VAT will exceed Output VAT in June 2018.

The corporate income tax audit process:

  • An error in calculation of income tax liability (for example, use of incorrect tax depreciation rates, or incorrectly treating an expense as tax deductible) leads to an incorrect income tax return and a corporate income tax underpayment. TaxpayerCo. discovered the error and voluntarily notified the tax authority. The value of the underpaid income tax liability is 5% of the corporate income tax liability due. TaxpayerCo. submits corrected information after the deadline for submitting the annual tax return, but within the tax assessment period.

Paying Taxes – Finland

paying taxes finland

Figure – Paying Taxes in Finland – Score

figure paying taxes in finland score

Figure – Paying Taxes in Finland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

DB 2020 Paying Taxes Score

figure paying taxes in finland and comparator economies ranking and score

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of paying taxes is determined by sorting their scores for paying taxes. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators, with a threshold and a nonlinear transformation applied to one of the component indicators, the total tax and contribution rate. The threshold is defined as the total tax and contribution rate at the 15th percentile of the overall distribution for all years included in the analysis up to and including Doing Business 2015, which is 26.1%. All economies with a total tax and contribution rate below this threshold receive the same score as the economy at the threshold.

Figure – Paying Taxes in Finland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

figure paying taxes in finland and comparator economies measure of quality

Details – Paying Taxes in Finland

details paying taxes in finland

Notes: Names of taxes have been standardized. For instance income tax, profit tax, tax on company's income are all named corporate income tax in this table. The hours for VAT include all the VAT and sales taxes applicable.

The hours for Social Security include all the hours for labor taxes and mandatory contributions in general.

The postfiling index is the average of the scores on time to comply with VAT refund, time to obtain a VAT refund, time to comply with a corporate income tax correction and time to complete a corporate income tax correction.

N/A = Not applicable.

Trading across Borders

Doing Business records the time and cost associated with the logistical process of exporting and importing goods. Doing Business measures the time and cost (excluding tariffs) associated with three sets of procedures—documentary compliance, border compliance and domestic transport—within the overall process of exporting or importing a shipment of goods. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

Documentary compliance

  • Obtaining, preparing and submitting documents during transport, clearance, inspections and port or border handling in origin economy

  • Obtaining, preparing and submitting documents required by destination economy and any transit economies

  • Covers all documents required by law and in practice, including electronic submissions of information

Border compliance

  • Customs clearance and inspections

  • Inspections by other agencies (if applied to more than 20% of shipments)

  • Handling and inspections that take place at the economy’s port or border

Domestic transport

  • Loading or unloading of the shipment at the warehouse or port/border

  • Transport between warehouse and port/border

  • Traffic delays and road police checks while shipment is en route

To make the data comparable across economies, a few assumptions are made about the traded goods and the transactions:

Time: Time is measured in hours, and 1 day is 24 hours (for example, 22 days are recorded as 22×24=528 hours). If customs clearance takes 7.5 hours, the data are recorded as is. Alternatively, suppose documents are submitted to a customs agency at 8:00a.m., are processed overnight and can be picked up at 8:00a.m. the next day. The time for customs clearance would be recorded as 24 hours because the actual procedure took 24 hours.

Cost: Insurance cost and informal payments for which no receipt is issued are excluded from the costs recorded. Costs are reported in U.S. dollars. Contributors are asked to convert local currency into U.S. dollars based on the exchange rate prevailing on the day they answer the questionnaire. Contributors are private sector experts in international trade logistics and are informed about exchange rates.

Assumptions of the case study:

  • For all 190 economies covered by Doing Business, it is assumed a shipment is in a warehouse in the largest business city of the exporting economy and travels to a warehouse in the largest business city of the importing economy.

  • It is assumed each economy imports 15 metric tons of containerized auto parts (HS 8708) from its natural import partner—the economy from which it imports the largest value (price times quantity) of auto parts. It is assumed each economy exports the product of its comparative advantage (defined by the largest export value) to its natural export partner—the economy that is the largest purchaser of this product. Shipment value is assumed to be $50,000.

  • The mode of transport is the one most widely used for the chosen export or import product and the trading partner, as is the seaport or land border crossing.

  • All electronic information submissions requested by any government agency in connection with the shipment are considered to be documents obtained, prepared and submitted during the export or import process.

  • A port or border is a place (seaport or land border crossing) where merchandise can enter or leave an economy.

  • Relevant government agencies include customs, port authorities, road police, border guards, standardization agencies, ministries or departments of agriculture or industry, national security agencies and any other government authorities.

Trading across Borders – Finland

trading across borders finland

Figure – Trading across Borders in Finland – Score

figure trading across borders in finland score

Figure – Trading across Borders in Finland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

DB 2020 Trading Across Borders Score

figure trading across borders in finland and comparator economies ranking and score

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of trading across borders is determined by sorting their scores for trading across borders. These scores are the simple average of the scores for the time and cost for documentary compliance and border compliance to export and import.

Figure – Trading across Borders in Finland – Time and Cost

figure trading across borders in finland time and cost

Details – Trading across Borders in Finland

details trading across borders in finland

Details – Trading across Borders in Finland – Components of Border Compliance

details trading across borders in finland components of border compliance

Details – Trading across Borders in Finland – Trade Documents

details trading across borders in finland rrade documents

Enforcing Contracts

The enforcing contracts indicator measures the time and cost for resolving a commercial dispute through a local first-instance court, and the quality of judicial processes index, evaluating whether each economy has adopted a series of good practices that promote quality and efficiency in the court system. The most recent round of data collection was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

Time required to enforce a contract through the courts (calendar days)

  • Time to file and serve the case

  • Time for trial and to obtain the judgment

  • Time to enforce the judgment

Cost required to enforce a contract through the courts (% of claim value)

  • Average attorney fees

  • Court costs

  • Enforcement costs

Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)

  • Court structure and proceedings (-1-5)

  • Case management (0-6)

  • Court automation (0-4)

  • Alternative dispute resolution (0-3)

The dispute in the case study involves the breach of a sales contract between two domestic businesses. The case study assumes that the court hears an expert on the quality of the goods in dispute. This distinguishes the case from simple debt enforcement.

To make the data on the time and comparable across economies, several assumptions about the case are used:

  • The dispute concerns a lawful transaction between two businesses (Seller and Buyer), both located in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

  • The Buyer orders custom-made furniture, then fails to pay alleging that the goods are not of adequate quality.

  • The value of the dispute is 200% of the income per capita or the equivalent in local currency of USD 5,000, whichever is greater.

  • The Seller sues the Buyer before the court with jurisdiction over commercial cases worth 200% of income per capita or $5,000 whichever is greater.

  • The Seller requests the pretrial attachment of the defendant’s movable assets to secure the claim.

  • The claim is disputed on the merits because of Buyer’s allegation that the quality of the goods was not adequate.

  • The judge decides in favor of the seller; there is no appeal.

  • The Seller enforces the judgment through a public sale of the Buyer’s movable assets.

Enforcing Contracts – Finland

enforcing contracts finland

Figure – Enforcing Contracts in Finland – Score

figure enforcing contracts in finland score

Figure – Enforcing Contracts in Finland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

DB 2020 Enforcing Contracts Score

figure enforcing contracts in finland and comparator economies ranking and score

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of enforcing contracts is determined by sorting their scores for enforcing contracts. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

Figure – Enforcing Contracts in Finland – Time and Cost

figure enforcing contracts in finland time and cost

Figure – Enforcing Contracts in Finland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

figure enforcing contracts in finland and comparator economies measure of quality

Details – Enforcing Contracts in Finland

details enforcing contracts in finland

Details – Enforcing Contracts in Finland – Measure of Quality

details enforcing contracts in finland measure of quality details enforcing contracts in finland measure of quality

Resolving Insolvency

Doing Business studies the time, cost and outcome of insolvency proceedings involving domestic legal entities. These variables are used to calculate the recovery rate, which is recorded as cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors through reorganization, liquidation or debt enforcement (foreclosure or receivership) proceedings. To determine the present value of the amount recovered by creditors, Doing Business uses the lending rates from the International Monetary Fund, supplemented with data from central banks and the Economist Intelligence Unit. The most recent round of data collection was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

Time required to recover debt (years)

  • Measured in calendar years

  • Appeals and requests for extension are included

Cost required to recover debt (% of debtor’s estate)

  • Measured as percentage of estate value

  • Court fees

  • Fees of insolvency administrators

  • Lawyers’ fees

  • Assessors’ and auctioneers’ fees

  • Other related fees

To make the data on the time, cost and outcome comparable across economies, several assumptions about the business and the case are used:

  • A hotel located in the largest city (or cities) has 201 employees and 50 suppliers. The hotel experiences financial difficulties.

  • The value of the hotel is 100% of the income per capita or the equivalent in local currency of USD 200,000, whichever is greater.

  • The hotel has a loan from a domestic bank, secured by a mortgage over the hotel’s real estate. The hotel cannot pay back the loan, but makes enough money to operate otherwise.

In addition, Doing Business evaluates the quality of legal framework applicable to judicial liquidation and reorganization proceedings and the extent to which best insolvency practices have been implemented in each economy covered.

Outcome

  • Whether business continues operating as a going concern or business assets are sold piecemeal

Recovery rate for creditors

  • Measures the cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors

  • Outcome for the business (survival or not) determines the maximum value that can be recovered

  • Official costs of the insolvency proceedings are deducted

  • Depreciation of furniture is taken into account

  • Present value of debt recovered

Strength of insolvency framework index (0- 16)

  • Sum of the scores of four component indices:

  • Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)

  • Management of debtor’s assets index (0-6)

  • Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)

  • Creditor participation index (0-4)

Resolving Insolvency – Finland

image

Figure – Resolving Insolvency in Finland – Score

figure resolving insolvency in finland score

Figure – Resolving Insolvency in Finland and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

DB 2020 Resolving Insolvency Score

figure resolving insolvency in finland and comparator economies ranking and score

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of resolving insolvency is determined by sorting their scores for resolving insolvency. These scores are the simple average of the scores for the recovery rate and the strength of insolvency framework index.

Figure – Resolving Insolvency in Finland – Time and Cost

figure resolving insolvency in finland time and cost

Figure – Resolving Insolvency in Finland and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

figure resolving insolvency in finland and comparator economies measure of quality

Note: Even if the economy’s legal framework includes provisions related to insolvency proceedings (liquidation or reorganization), the economy receives 0 points for the strength of insolvency framework index, if time, cost and outcome indicators are recorded as “no practice.”

Figure – Resolving Insolvency in Finland and comparator economies – Recovery Rate

figure resolving insolvency in finland and comparator economies recovery rate

Details – Resolving Insolvency in Finland

details resolving insolvency in finland

Details – Resolving Insolvency in Finland – Measure of Quality

details resolving insolvency in finland measure of quality

Note: Even if the economy’s legal framework includes provisions related to insolvency proceedings (liquidation or reorganization), the economy receives 0 points for the strength of insolvency framework index, if time, cost and outcome indicators are recorded as “no practice.”

Employing Workers

Doing Business presents detailed data for the employing workers indicators on the Doing Business website (http://www.doingbusiness.org). The study does not present rankings of economies on these indicators or include the topic in the aggregate ease of doing business score or ranking on the ease of doing business.

The most recent round of data collection was completed in May 2019. See the methodology for more information.

What the indicators measure

Hiring

(i) whether fixed-term contracts are prohibited for permanent tasks; (ii) maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts;

(iii) length of the maximum probationary period; (iv) minimum wage;(v) ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker.

Working hours

(i) maximum number of working days allowed per week; (ii) premiums for work: at night, on a weekly rest day and overtime;

(iii) whether there are restrictions on work at night, work on a weekly rest day and for overtime work; (iv) length of paid annual leave.

Redundancy rules

(i) whether redundancy can be basis for terminating workers; (ii) whether employer needs to notify and/or get approval from third party to terminate 1 redundant worker and a group of 9 redundant workers; (iii) whether the law requires employer to reassign or retrain a worker before making worker redundant; (iv) whether priority rules apply for redundancies and reemployment.

To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the worker and the business are used.

The worker:

  • Is a cashier in a supermarket or grocery store, age 19, with one year of work experience.

  • Is a full-time employee.

  • Is not a member of the labor union, unless membership is mandatory.

    The business:

  • Is a limited liability company (or the equivalent in the economy).

  • Operates a supermarket or grocery store in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.

  • Has 60 employees.

  • Is subject to collective bargaining agreements if such agreements cover more than 50% of the food retail sector and they apply even to firms that are not party to them.

  • Abides by every law and regulation but does not grant workers more benefits than those mandated by law, regulation or (if applicable) collective bargaining agreements.

Redundancy cost

(i) notice period for redundancy dismissal; (ii) severance payments, and (iii) penalties due when terminating a redundant worker. Data on the availability of unemployment protection for a worker with one year of employment is also collected.

Employing Workers – Finland

Details – Employing Workers in Finland

Hiring

Fixed-term contracts prohibited for permanent tasks? Yes

Maximum length of a single fixed-term contract (months) No limit

Maximum length of fixed-term contracts, including renewals (months) 60.0

Minimum wage applicable to the worker assumed in the case study (US$/month) 2080.4

Maximum length of probationary period (months) 6.0

Ratio of minimum wage to value added per worker 0.3

Working hours

Standard workday 8.0

Maximum number of working days per week 6.0

Premium for night work (% of hourly pay) 15.7

Premium for work on weekly rest day (% of hourly pay) 100.0

Premium for overtime work (% of hourly pay) 50.0

Restrictions on night work? No

Restrictions on weekly holiday? No

Restrictions on overtime work? No

Paid annual leave for a worker with 1 year of tenure (working days) 30.0

Paid annual leave for a worker with 5 years of tenure (working days) 30.0

Paid annual leave for a worker with 10 years of tenure (working days) 30.0

Paid annual leave (average for workers with 1, 5 and 10 years of tenure, in working days) 30.0

Redundancy rules

Dismissal due to redundancy allowed by law? Yes

Third-party notification if one worker is dismissed? Yes

Third-party approval if one worker is dismissed? No

Third-party notification if nine workers are dismissed? Yes

Third-party approval if nine workers are dismissed? No

Retraining or reassignment obligation before redundancy? Yes

Priority rules for redundancies? No

Priority rules for reemployment? Yes

Redundancy cost

Notice period for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 1 year of tenure (weeks of salary) 4.3

Notice period for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 10 years of tenure (weeks of salary) 17.3

Notice period for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 5 years of tenure (weeks of salary) 8.7

Severance pay for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 1 year of tenure (weeks of salary) 0.0

Severance pay for redundancy dismissal for a worker with 10 years of tenure (weeks of salary) 0.0

Unemployment protection after one year of employment? Yes

Severance pay for redundancy dismissal (average for workers with 1, 5 and 10 years of tenure, in weeks of salary) 0.0

PEO Finland

Finland, renowned for its exceptional quality of life, advanced social welfare systems, and impressive technological innovations, stands out as a prime example of a progressive and equitable (Professional Employer Organization) PEO country. With a robust economy and a strong emphasis on education, Finland nurtures a skilled workforce capable of contributing to various industries. The PEO model aligns seamlessly with Finland’s values of inclusivity and work-life balance, providing businesses the opportunity to access this highly skilled talent pool without the administrative burdens of traditional employment. In this collaborative framework, both employees and employers benefit, as Finnish PEOs facilitate smooth onboarding, HR management, and legal compliance, allowing companies to focus on their core objectives. Finland’s PEO landscape reflects the nation’s dedication to efficiency, fairness, and innovation in the realm of global employment solutions.

PEO services in Finland offer a strategic gateway for companies aiming to establish a robust presence in this dynamic Nordic country. With its well-educated workforce and innovation-driven economy, Finland presents numerous opportunities. PEOs facilitate this process by handling complex HR and administrative tasks, including payroll, benefits, and legal compliance. By partnering with a PEO, businesses can navigate Finland’s unique labor regulations and employment landscape with ease, allowing them to focus on their core operations and growth strategies. This collaborative arrangement not only streamlines market entry but also ensures that companies can tap into the local talent pool effectively. PEO services in Finland serve as a bridge to success, offering the support and expertise necessary for a smooth and efficient expansion journey.

Business Reforms in Finland

From May 2, 2018 to May 1, 2019, 115 economies implemented 294 business regulatory reforms across the 10 areas measured by Doing Business. Reforms inspired by

Doing Business have been implemented by economies in all regions. The following are reforms implemented since Doing Business 2008.

=Doing Business reform making it easier to do business. = Change making it more difficult to do business.

DB2020

Starting a Business: Finland made starting a business easier by reducing the fee and processing time of online business registrations.

DB2019

Paying Taxes: Finland made paying taxes less costly by reducing the labor contribution rates paid by employers and by introducing a new and more efficient online portal for filing corporate income tax returns called ‘MyTax’.

DB2018

Employing Workers: Finland increased the length of the maximum probationary period for permanent employees.

DB2016

Paying Taxes: Finland made paying taxes less costly for companies by reducing the corporate income tax rate—though it also increased the total rate for social security contributions paid by employers and reduced the allowed deductible amount for owners’ expenses.

DB2015

Employing Workers: Finland eliminated the requirement to notify a third party before dismissing a redundant employee or group of redundant employees.

DB2012

Paying Taxes: Finland simplified reporting and payment for the value added tax and labor tax.

DB2010

Paying Taxes: Finland made paying taxes easier and less costly for companies by extending electronic filing and reducing employers’ social security contribution rates.

DB2009

Getting Credit: Finland improved its credit information system by assembling regulations relating to the credit information of individuals and companies into one act governing the production, storage, disclosure and use of credit data.

Resolving Insolvency: Finland enhanced its insolvency process through amendments to the Restructuring of Enterprises Act that accelerate hearings and increase the flexibility of proceedings, making it easier for companies to enter reorganization.

DB2008

Starting a Business: Finland made starting a business easier by reducing the minimum capital requirement and simplifying documentation requirements.

DOWNLOAD

Table of Contents